Literacy - World Bank

Report
The State of Education Series
Literacy
A Global Report
March 2013
Summary
This presentation is divided into two
sections:
 Youth Literacy Rates
 Adult Literacy Rates
It includes detailed analysis of literacy rates
by regions and by genders.
Acronym Guide
Acronym Name
EAP
East Asia and Pacific
ECA
Europe and Central Asia
LAC
Latin American and the Caribbean
MNA
Middle East and North Africa
SAS
South Asia
SSA
Sub-Saharan Africa
WLD
World (Global Aggregate)
GPI
Gender Parity Index (female value/male value)
Youth
Literacy
Have youth literacy rates improved
over time?



Global youth literacy
rates have improved
from 83.3% (1985-2004)
to 89.6% (2005-2010) or
6.3 percentage points.
Still, around 10% of
youth emerge from
education systems
around the world without
basic literacy skills.
All regions showed
improvement in youth
literacy rates over time.
SAS showed the most
dramatic improvement
from 58% to 79.5% -- a
21 percentage point
improvement.
(continued on next slide)
Youth literacy rates have been increasing in
all regions over time.
100
1985-1994
1995-2004
2005-2010
95
90
85
Youth literacy rate (%). Total

80
75
70
65
60
55
50
EAP
ECA
LAC
MNA
SAS
SSA
WLD
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Have youth literacy rates improved
over time?
(continued)


ECA has consistently
had the highest youth
literacy rate ranging
from 98-99%.
Over time, EAP has
almost caught up to
ECA’s high youth
literacy levels and LAC
trails closely behind.
More than 97% of
youth are literate in
these regions.
More 25% of youth are
illiterate in SSA, but
this is a 6 percentage
point improvement
over 1985-1995.
Youth literacy rates have been increasing in
all regions over time.
100
1985-1994
1995-2004
2005-2010
95
90
85
Youth literacy rate (%). Total

80
75
70
65
60
55
50
EAP
ECA
LAC
MNA
SAS
SSA
WLD
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Which countries have the lowest
youth literacy rates?




Less than half of youth
are literate in Burkina
Faso, Mali and Chad.
All of the countries with
the lowest literacy rates
are in SSA.
Of the 142 countries with
data, 22 countries have
youth literacy rates less
than 75%. All are in SSA
except for Pakistan, Haiti,
and Papua New Guinea.
89 countries have youth
literacy rates higher than
95%.
10 Countries with the Lowest
Youth Literacy Rates
(2006-2010)
1
Burkina Faso
39.3
2
Mali
44.3
3
Chad
47.0
4
Benin
55.0
5
Ethiopia
55.0
6
Sierra Leone
59.4
7
Guinea
63.4
8
Madagascar
64.9
9
Congo, Dem. Rep.
65.0
Senegal
65.0
10
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Note: Data were not available for 72 countries. Most recent data year is
displayed; Black = 2010; Green = 2009; Blue = 2007.
Which countries have increased youth
literacy rates the most over time?




These countries have
increased their youth
literacy rates by 10 to
16 percentage points
over time.
8 of 10 countries are
in SSA.
Despite great
improvement, only 4
of 10 countries have
youth literacy rates
higher than 75%.
Four countries’ rates
worsened by more
than 2% over the
same period: Iraq,
Madagascar, Haiti,
and Congo, Dem.
Rep.
10 Countries with the
Most Improvement in
Youth Literacy Rates
Percentage
Points
Improved
19992004
Rate
20062010
Rate
%
Improved
1 Guinea
16.3
47.1
63.4
34.6
2 Senegal
15.9
49.1
65.0
32.4
3 Gambia, The
14.1
52.6
66.7
26.8
4 Bangladesh
13.4
63.6
77.0
21.1
5 Nepal
13.0
70.1
83.1
18.5
6 Guinea-Bissau
12.6
59.5
72.1
21.2
7 Sierra Leone
11.5
47.9
59.4
24.0
8 Eritrea
11.4
77.9
89.3
14.6
9 Ghana
10.1
70.7
80.8
14.3
1
Mozambique
0
9.9
61.9
71.8
16.0
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;
Data were not available for 93 of 214 countries .
Youth Literacy Rate. Total
(2006-2010)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Is there disparity between
genders in youth literacy rates?


Globally, there is still a
gender gap in youth
literacy rates, though the
gap has been shrinking
over time.
There was a 8.6%
difference between male
and female youth literacy
rates during 1985-1994.
The gender gap shrunk
by 41.5% to 5.0% during
2005-2010. 92% of
males were literate
compared to 87% of
females.
Fewer females emerge from education
systems with basic literacy skills than males.
95
Male
Female
92.2
90
Youth Literacy Rate (%)

90.4
87.6
87.1
85
83.9
80
79.0
75
70
1985-1994
1995-2004
2005-2010
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Are gender disparities in youth
literacy rates decreasing?



Gender disparities
between male and
female youth literacy
rates have decreased in
all regions.
EAP, ECA, and LAC
have achieved almost
perfect gender parity
(1.0), while MNA, SAS,
and SSA lag behind.
SAS and MNA have
improved greatly over
time: They moved 0.17
and 0.14 closer to
gender parity.
Progress in SSA has
been slower with only
0.09 improvement.
Gender disparities in youth literacy rates have
decreased over time in all regions.
1.05
Gender Parity Index (GPI) for Youth Literacy Rate

1.00
0.95
0.95
0.93
0.90
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
1985-1994
EAP
ECA
1995-2004
LAC
MNA
2005-2010
SAS
SSA
WLD
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Gender Parity Index for Youth
Literacy Rate
(2006-2010)
Male
Bias
Male
Bias
Male
Bias
Gender
Parity
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Which countries have the
lowest female literacy rates?



The 20 lowest female
youth literacy rates
were all found in SubSaharan African
countries except for
Pakistan.
Only 1/3 of female
youth are literate in
Burkina Faso and Mali.
Less than half of
female youth are
literate in the top 5
countries.
10 Countries with the Lowest
Female Youth Literacy Rates
(2006-2010)
1
Burkina Faso
33.1
2
Mali
33.9
3
Chad
40.6
4
Benin
44.6
5
Ethiopia
47.0
6
Sierra Leone
50.1
7
Senegal
56.2
8
Guinea
57.0
9
Central African Republic
58.2
Pakistan
61.5
10
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013; Note:
Data points are the most recent year available: Green = 2009; Blue =
2007; Black = 2010; Data were not available for 71 countries.
Which countries have increased female
youth literacy rates the most over time?




These countries have
increased their female
youth literacy rates by
14 to 23 percentage
points over time.
8 of 10 countries are
in SSA and 2 are in
SAS.
Despite great
improvement, only 4
of 10 countries have
female youth literacy
rates higher than
75%.
Haiti’s female youth
literacy rate worsened
over the period by 10
percentage points.
10 Countries with the
Most Improvement in
Female Youth Literacy Rates
Percentage
Points
Improved
19992004
Rate
20062010
Rate
%
Improved
1 Guinea
22.9
34.1
57.0
67.2
2 Gambia, The
20.3
41.4
61.7
49.1
3 Guinea-Bissau
19.4
45.9
65.3
42.3
4 Nepal
18.2
60.1
78.4
30.3
5 Bangladesh
18.2
60.3
78.5
30.3
6 Chad
17.3
23.2
40.6
74.6
7 Eritrea
17.2
69.5
86.7
24.7
8 Senegal
15.2
41.0
56.2
37.2
9 Mozambique
15.0
50.0
65.1
30.0
1
Ghana
0
14.4
65.5
79.9
22.0
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;
Data were not available for 92 of 213 countries .
Youth Literacy Rate. Female
(2006-2010)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Adult
Literacy
Have adult literacy rates improved
over time?


Global adult literacy
rates improved from
75.7% to 84.1% -- an 8
percentage point
increase over time.
Still, 16% of adults have
emerged from
education systems
without basic literacy
skills.
All regions showed
improvement in adult
literacy rates, but MNA
improved the most from
56% to 76% -- a 20
percentage point
increase over time.
Adult literacy rates have been increasing over
the years in all regions.
100
1985-1994
1995-2004
2005-2010
95
90
85
Adult literacy rate (%). Total

80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
(continued on next slide)
EAP
ECA
LAC
MNA
SAS
SSA
WLD
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Have adult literacy rates improved
over time? (continued)


ECA has consistently
had the highest adult
literacy rates (95%+).
More than 1/3 of adults
are illiterate in SAS
and SSA, but SAS
improved from 46% to
62% – a 16 percentage
point increase.
SSA has improved
more slowly than SAS
at 8.4 percentage
points of improvement
over time.
Adult literacy rates have been increasing over the
years in all regions.
100
1985-1994
1995-2004
2005-2010
95
90
85
Adult literacy rate (%). Total

80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
40
EAP
ECA
LAC
MNA
SAS
SSA
WLD
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Which countries have the lowest
adult literacy rates?




9 of the 10 countries
10 Countries with the Lowest Adult
with the lowest adult
Literacy Rates
literacy rates are in
(2006-2010)
SSA. Haiti is the
28.7
1 Burkina Faso
exception.
31.1
Less than one third of
2 Mali
adults are literate in Mali
34.5
3 Chad
and Burkina Faso.
39.0
4 Ethiopia
Of the 149 countries
with data, 20 countries
41.0
5 Guinea
have adult literacy rates
42.1
6 Sierra Leone
less than 60% and 43
countries have adult
42.4
7 Benin
literacy rates less than
48.7
8 Haiti
75%.
49.7
9 Senegal
75 countries have adult
literacy rates higher than 10 Gambia, The
50.0
90%.
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Note: Data were not available for 71 countries. Data are for the most recent
available year. Purple = 2006; Blue = 2007; Green = 2009; Black = 2010.
Which countries have increased adult
literacy rates the most over time?




These countries have
increased their adult
literacy rates by 9 to
21 percentage points
over time.
7 of 10 countries are
in SSA.
Despite great
improvement, at least
30% of adults were
illiterate in all these
countries except
Sudan.
Haiti’s adult literacy
rate worsened by 10
percentage points,
and Madagascar’s by
6 percentage points.
10 Countries with the
Most Improvement in
Adult Literacy Rates
Percentage
Points
Improved
19992004
Rate
20062010
Rate
%
Improved
1 Timor-Leste
20.7
37.6
58.3
55.1
2 Eritrea
15.3
52.5
67.8
29.1
3 Gambia, The
13.1
36.8
50.0
35.7
4 Guinea-Bissau
12.8
41.4
54.2
31.0
5 Nepal
11.7
48.6
60.3
24.1
6 Guinea
11.3
29.7
41.0
38.2
7 Senegal
10.4
39.3
49.7
26.5
8 Sudan
9.7
61.3
71.1
15.8
9 Ghana
9.4
57.9
67.3
16.2
1
Bangladesh
0
9.3
47.5
56.8
19.6
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013;
Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;
Data were not available for 87 of 214 countries .
Adult Literacy Rate. Total
(2006-2010)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Is there disparity between
genders in adult literacy rates?


Globally, there is still a
gender gap in adult
literacy rates, though the
gap has been shrinking
over time.
There was a 12.6%
difference between male
(82%) and female
(69.4%) adult literacy
rates during 1985-1994.
The gender gap shrunk
by 29% to 8.9% during
2005-2010. 88.6% of
males were literate
compared to 79.7% of
females.
Fewer adult females have basic literacy skills,
but the gender gap has decreased over time.
100
Male
Female
90
88.6
86.9
80
82.0
79.7
76.9
70
Adult Literacy Rate (%)

69.4
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1985-1994
1995-2004
2005-2010
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, Mar. 2013
Have gender disparities in adult
literacy rates decreased over time?




Gender disparities in
adult literacy rates have
decreased over time in
all regions.
ECA and LAC have
achieved gender parity
with GPIs at 0.98.
MNA, SAS, and EAP
have made the most
progress by moving 0.16,
0.13, and 0.13 closer to
1.0 (gender parity)
respectively.
Progress in SSA has
been slower with only
0.09 improvement.
SAS, SSA, and MNA are
furthest from gender
parity in adult literacy.
All regions are moving closer to gender parity
in adult literacy rates.
1.05
Gender Parity Index (GPI) for Adult Literacy Rate

1.00
0.95
0.90
0.85
0.88
1985-1994
1995-2004
0.90
0.85
0.80
0.75
0.70
0.65
0.60
0.55
0.50
EAP
ECA
LAC
MNA
2005-2010
SAS
SSA
WLD
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Which countries have the
lowest female literacy rates?



Less than one quarter
of females are literate
in the top 3 countries –
Mali, Burkina Faso,
and Chad. Less than
one third of females
are literate in the top 7
countries.
All the countries on the
list are in SSA except
Pakistan.
Of the 144 countries
with data, 19 countries
have female adult
literacy rates less than
50% and 70 countries
have rates higher than
90%.
10 Countries with the Lowest
Female Adult Literacy Rates
(2006-2010)
1
Mali
20.3
2
Burkina Faso
21.6
3
Chad
24.2
4
Ethiopia
28.9
5
Guinea
30.0
6
Benin
30.3
7
Sierra Leone
31.4
8
Senegal
38.7
9
Pakistan
40.3
Gambia, The
40.4
10
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Note: Data were not available for 71 countries. Data are for the most recent
available year. Blue = 2007; Green = 2009; Black = 2010.
Which countries have increased female
adult literacy rates the most over time?




These countries have
increased their female
adult literacy rates by
11 to 23 percentage
points over time.
Six of the countries are
in SSA; 2 are in SAS.
Despite great
improvement, more
than 1/3 of women are
illiterate in all of these
countries except Saudi
Arabia.
Haiti’s rate worsened
by 10.3 percentage
points over time.
10 Countries with the
Most Improvement in
Female Adult Literacy Rates
Percentage
Points
Improved
19992004
Rate
20062010
Rate
%
Improved
1 Timor-Leste
23.0
30.0
53.0
76.5
2 Eritrea
17.3
40.2
57.5
43.1
3 Gambia, The
15.4
25.1
40.4
61.4
4 Nepal
13.5
34.9
48.3
38.6
5 Guinea-Bissau
13.1
27.5
40.6
47.7
6 Saudi Arabia
12.1
69.3
81.3
17.4
7 Guinea
11.8
18.2
30.0
64.7
8 Ghana
11.4
49.8
61.2
22.9
9 Bangladesh
11.4
40.8
52.2
27.9
1
Chad
0
11.4
12.8
24.2
89.0
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, March 2013
Notes: Data are most current available year within the time period;
Data were not available for 90 of 213 countries .
Adult Literacy Rate. Female
(2006-2010)
Source: UNESCO Institute for Statistics in EdStats, 2013
Note: Data displayed is for the most recent available year
The maps displayed were produced by EdStats. The boundaries, colors, denominations and any
other information shown on this map do not imply, on the part of the World Bank Group, any
judgment on the legal status of any territory, or any endorsement or acceptance of such boundaries.
The maps are for reference only.
Data Sources
This presentation utilizes the following data source:
UNESCO Institute for Statistics data in the EdStats Query

The presentation was created with the most recent UIS data release that
included 2010 data for most countries.

Indicators were calculated by UIS according to definitions available in the
EdStats Query.
The State of Education Series
The following State of Education presentations
are available on the EdStats website:
Topics:






Educational Levels:
Access
Quality
Expenditures


Pre-Primary Education
Primary Education
Secondary Education
Literacy
Equity
Gender

Tertiary Education


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