Empirically Defining Validation, Sense of Belonging

Report
Sylvia Hurtado, Ph.D.
Marcela Cuellar
Chelsea Guillermo-Wann
Paolo Velasco
May 31, 2010
Association for Institutional Research
Chicago, IL
A project funded by the Ford Foundation
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Empirically examine innovative and
established constructs in the Diverse Learning
Environments pilot survey (DLE)
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General validation
Validation by faculty in the Classroom
Sense of belonging
Navigational action
Goal: Establish constructs that can be used
to empirically examine relationships with
student outcomes
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Assist educators in advancing the success of
diverse students
Assess undergraduate skills for work and
citizenship in a pluralistic democracy
Create the conditions for realizing the
benefits of diversity in the learning process
Increase retention rates and improve the
assessment of retention
Research:
• Diverse Learning Environments Survey
• Campus Case Studies of 8 Institutions
• National Retention Study (Clearinghouse)
Practice:
• Institute for the Critical Analysis of
Quantitative Data (July 13 – 15)
• Diversity Research Institute (August 4 – 6)
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Sense of Belonging
Validation
Navigational Action &
Capital
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Comprises cognitive and affective elements
◦ Cognitive level: information about experiences with
a group as a whole and other group members
◦ Affective level: feelings that reflect the individual’s
appraisal of their experiences with the group
(Bollen & Hoyle, 1990)
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Original factor items
◦ I feel a sense of belonging to …
◦ I feel that I am a member of the … community
◦ I see myself as part of the … community
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Utilized in higher education research as a
psychological sense of integration
◦ Illustrates the interplay between the individual and
the institution (Hurtado & Carter, 1997)
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Original Bollen & Hoyle (1990) items
modified to include broader concepts of
cohesion
DLE uses the original construct
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Factors Influencing Sense of Belonging
◦ Perceptions of the campus climate for both white
and students of color (Hurtado et al, 2007; Locks et al,
2008)
◦ Positive interactions with diverse peers
2008)
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(Locks et al,
Different college predictors for different
racial/ethnic groups
◦ Course-related faculty interaction, co-curricular
involvement, and perceptions of supportive
residential environments (Inkelas et al, 2007)
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Sense of Belonging Impacts Persistence
(Hausmann et al, 2007)
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“Validation is an enabling, confirming and
supportive process initiated by in- and outof-class agents that foster academic and
interpersonal development” (Rendón, 1994)
Differs from earlier theories on student
persistence and learning (most notably
Astin’s Theory of Involvement)
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Examples of invalidation
Forms of validation
◦ Academic validation
◦ Interpersonal validation
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Occurs both in- and out-of-class
Never empirically examined at a national level
DLE includes measures of both general
validation from faculty and staff and
validation in the classroom
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Qualitative research has examined validation
Effects of validation on student experiences
◦ Feel capable of learning
◦ Experience a feeling of self worth
◦ Feel that they, and everything that they bring to the
college experience, are accepted and recognized as
valuable.
◦ Lacking validation, students feel crippled, silenced,
subordinate, and/or mistrusted.
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Navigation is critical for increasing academic
goal attainment (AAC&U, 2002)
◦ Equip students with the necessary knowledge to
make informed decisions about appropriate routes
for their academic goals (AAC&U, 2002)
◦ Actions and requisite knowledge represent
navigational capital (Yosso, 2005)
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Students of color must develop academic
resilience that enables them to navigate
social institutions (Alva, 1991, Yosso, 2005; see Solorzano, Ceja
& Yosso, 2000)
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Family & Community Support
(Delgado Bernal, 2001;
Solórzano &Villapando, 1998)
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Peer & Faculty Support
(Solórzano, Ceja, &Yosso, 2000;
Solórzano & Delgado Bernal, 2001; Solórzano & Villapando, 1998)
Identifying Career Goals & Multiple Paths to It
Having a Mentor
Joining an Ethnic Organization
DLE items measure navigational actions that
demonstrate navigational capital at work
◦ Includes individual and community agency for
students of color (Yosso, 2005)
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Integrated assessment of climate,
diversity practice, and outcomes
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Inclusive of diverse social identities
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Modules targeting specific topics
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Longitudinal when linked with other
student data (e.g. other CIRP surveys,
registrar data, etc.)
Nationally available CIRP survey in Spring
2011
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Core Survey
Modules
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Classroom Climate
Transition into the Major
Intergroup Relations
Community College Students’ Transfer Pathway
Transition Experiences for Transfer Students at
four-year Institutions
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Online administration between
January – May 2010
14 institutions (9 represented in this analysis)
◦ 1 - community college (Midwest)
◦ 3 - four-year private institutions (West, Midwest,
East)
◦ 5 - four-year public universities (West)
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Target sample: cohorts of second year and
third year students
◦ Some institutions chose to sample additional
cohorts
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n = 3,306 undergraduate students
Racial/ethnic demographics*
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Black – 6%
Asian American/Asian/Pacific Islander – 19%
Latina/o – 19%
White – 68%
Native American – 6%
Arab American/Arab – 2%
Other – 2%
Student characteristics
◦ 11% Frosh, 31% Soph, 32% Junior, 25% Senior
 33% transfer and 9% re-entry students
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* Students could choose multiple categories
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Structural Equation Modeling to conduct
Confirmatory Factor Analysis
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Partial correlations
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Cross-tabulations
Items
Factor Loadings
I see myself as part of the campus community
.91
I feel that I am a member of the campus
community
.95
I feel a sense of belonging to my campus
.81
Model-Fit Results
χ²
.000
df
0
NFI
1.000
Items
Factor Loadings
Faculty empower me to learn here
.50
At least one staff member has taken interest in my
development
.88
Faculty believe in my potential to succeed
academically
.76
Staff encourage me to get involved in campus
activities
.49
Staff recognize my achievements
.66
At least one faculty member has taken interest in my
development
.89
Model-Fit Results
χ²
458.7
df
9
CFI
.93
Items
Factor Loadings
Instructors were able to determine my level of
understanding of course material
.76
Instructors provided me with feedback that helped
judge my progress
.81
I feel like my contributions were valued in class
.82
Instructors encouraged me to meet with them after or
outside of class
.64
Instructors encouraged me to ask questions and
participate in discussions
.72
I received recognition for my work
.72
Model-Fit Results
χ²
390.23
df
9
CFI
.94
Factor
Sense of
Belonging
General
Validation
Validation in
the Classroom
---
.57**
.37**
General Validation
.57**
---
.59**
Validation in the
Classroom
.37**
.59**
---
Sense of
Belonging
p < .01
Validation
Items
Sense of
General Class
Belonging
Discussed career goals
.06***
.08***
---
.06***
---
---
---
Attended professor’s office hours
Participated in study groups
.05**
Creating a plan to achieve career goals
.05**
Participated in faculty/mentor program
Participated in the Ethnic or Cultural
Center activities
--.06***
.04*
.04*
.07***
.05**
---
.04*
---
*** p < .001
** p < .01
* p < .05
How often have you sought support from the following to successfully
complete college?
(5 pt Likert scale: never, seldom, sometimes, often, very often)
Validation
Items
Sense of
Belonging
Upper class peers
.08***
---
---
Peers in your same year
.08***
---
---
-.08***
---
Academic counselors
---
General Class
Faculty
.08***
.29***
.23***
Staff
.09***
.09***
---
*** p < .001
** p < .01
* p < .05
Institutional Type
Low
Middle
High
Community
College
10%
69%
21%
Four-year public
18%
66%
16%
Four-year private
9%
68%
23%
χ² = 62.85
p < .001
Institutional Type
Low
Middle
High
Community
College
15%
61%
24%
Four-year public
20%
66%
14%
Four-year private
11%
70%
19%
χ² = 66.28
p < .001
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Empirically identified useful constructs of
validation to capture student experience
Useful in revised conceptual models for
retention and future research
Student navigational actions are related to
validation and sense of belonging,
empowering students to learn
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Seeking faculty support is key to increased
general validation and within the classroom
Staff are often left out of frameworks,
however, preliminary research indicates they
are important
Frequent use of academic counselors appear
to influence a lower sense of general
validation
Peer networks are central to sense of
belonging
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Final validation of these and other innovative
DLE constructs
Develop studies examining relationships
between these constructs and key student
outcomes, e.g. retention

National launch of DLE survey through CIRP
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◦ Spring 2011
Higher Education Research Institute
http://www.heri.ucla.edu
Diverse Learning Environments Project
Website: http://heri.ucla.edu/dle
Email: [email protected]
Phone: 310-267-5930

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