EDU 153 Special Considerations for Menu Planning ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Special Considerations for Menu Planning • Children with disabilities and other special needs – Individual accommodations may be necessary – Some children have issues with textures and consistencies – Special diets for certain conditions ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Special Considerations for Menu Planning • Children with religious beliefs that affect menu planning – Jewish kosher diet – Muslim halal diet – Hindu diet – Buddist diet – Seventh-Day Adventist diet – Mormon health code ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Jewish Kosher Diet The list of prohibited foods includes: • Pork • Shellfish • Certain combinations of food, such as dairy foods and meat eaten at the same time ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Jewish Kosher Diet Religious laws regulate: • How animals are to be slaughtered • How foods are to be prepared • When foods can be eaten Specific dietary laws are in place during religious observances, such as Passover. ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Muslim Halal Diet Allowed foods (halal) include: • Meats from animals slaughtered according to procedures dictated by the religion • Marine animals and seafood • Dairy products • Grains and grain products such as cereals and rice • Vegetables • Fruits ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Muslim Halal Diet • Prohibited foods (haram) include: • Pork and pork by-products such as bacon or sausage • Animal fats or gelatin (no lard or Jello) • Birds of prey Fasting and specific dietary laws occur during special religious observances, such as Ramadan. ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Hindu Diet • Emphasizes vegetarianism, but not all Hindus are strict vegetarians • Dairy products may be eaten. • No beef or pork, but chicken, fish, or eggs • Fruits, nuts, vegetables, and whole grains are the most desirable foods. • Leftover, stale, or overripe food is considered impure. • Strict Hindus do not eat garlic, onions, mushrooms, or hot and spicy foods, and do not imbibe in caffeine or alcohol. ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Buddhist Diet • Most follow a vegetarian diet. • Many do not eat dairy products, whereas others are lacto-ovo vegetarians. • Those who do eat meat do not eat beef. ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Seventh-Day Adventist Diet • Liberal amounts of whole grain breads, cereals, and pastas • Liberal amounts of fresh vegetables and fruits • Low-fat dairy products such as milk, yogurt, cheese, and eggs • No coffee, tea, and alcoholic beverages ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. The Mormon Health Code • Liberal amounts of vegetables and fruits • Liberal amounts of whole grains • Limit amount of drinks such as caffeinated or carbonated beverages • No hot drinks such as coffee or tea; no alcohol ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Special Considerations for Menu Planning • Children who are vegetarians – Vegan, lactovegetarian, ovo-vegetarian, and lacto-ovo vegetarian Which of these could eat this piece of pizza? ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Food Intolerance • The difference between an allergic reaction to a food and intolerance to a food involves the immune system. • A child who has food intolerance has an abnormal response to a food, but it does not compromise the general health and well-being of the child. • A child who is intolerant to a food can eat small amounts of it and have little or no reaction. • A child with an allergy to a food has a response that is triggered from the immune system; such a reaction may bring about a serious medical condition or may be life threatening. • Only about 5 percent of children have a true food allergy ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Lactose Intolerance • An example is lactose intolerance. • Lactose is the simple sugar found in milk. • When people are unable to metabolize lactose properly, they experience gastric distress such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, bloating, or vomiting. • Infants who exhibit lactose intolerance are put on soy-based or lactose-free formulas. – Care should be taken when putting a child on a soy-based formula because soy is another product that children are commonly allergic to. • Lactose intolerance is fairly common in the United States. – As many as 90 percent of Asian Americans – 75 percent of Hispanic Americans, African Americans, and Native Americans may exhibit lactose intolerance. – This may be because many non-Caucasians do not commonly include dairy products as part of their diet. – In many cases, children grow out of their intolerance. ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Food Allergies • Children with Food Allergies – Number of children with food allergies increasing – Common foods • Peanuts, milk, eggs, wheat, tree nuts. fish, shellfish, soybeans – Children can be allergic to more than one food ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Food Allergies • Come from both environmental and genetic factors • Risk for food allergy from diet can be prevented in several ways: – Milk or milk products should not be introduced to children before age 1 year. – Children should not have eggs until they are 2 years old. – Peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, and fish should not be a part of a child’s menu until the child is at least 3 years old and should be done so then with caution Food Allergies • Children with food allergies – Allergic reactions occur and can be serious – Educational site should be prepared to deal with these reactions • • • • Be prepared in advance Allergy action plan EpiPen Support allergic child by providing a safe environment ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. Reality Check: Peanut Allergy • What would you do in an early education site to prevent risk for children allergic to peanuts? ©2013 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved.