healthy eating

Report
Dietary Guidelines
for a Healthy Diet
Dr Ciara Rooney , Research Fellow
Nutrition & Metabolism Group
Centre for Public Health, QUB
What are dietary guidelines?
• A healthy diet is important for overall health
• The amount and types of food eaten has a
major influence on health
• Hence, nutritional/dietary intake
guidelines have been devised
Nutritional requirements
• The amount of each nutrient needed is called
a nutritional requirement
• Nutritional requirements vary
between individuals and life stages
Nutritional requirements
Energy requirements
are lower than in
adolescence
Lower requirements
for calcium &
phosphorus after
adolescence
Reduced
requirement for
magnesium in
women
Requirements during
pregnancy &
lactation change
ADULTS
19 - 50 years
Reduced
requirement for iron
in men
However, selenium
requirements
increase slightly for
men
Requirements for
protein, vitamins &
minerals mostly
unchanged from
adolescence
Nutritional requirements
Energy requirements
decrease after 50
years in women and
60 years in men
Protein requirements
decrease in men
Nutrient density
even more important
at this stage
OLDER
ADULTS
Recommended that
older adults take
10µg/day vitamin D
supplement
50 years +
Protein requirements
increase in women
Requirements for
vitamins and
minerals mostly
unchanged
Except iron – after
menopause women’s
requirements reduce
Nutritional requirements
Energy Requirements
MALES
FEMALES
(kcal)
(kcal)
19-24 years
2772
2175
25-35 years
2749
2175
35-44 years
2629
2103
45-54 years
2581
2103
55-64 years
2581
2079
65-74 years
2342
1912
75+ years
2294
1840
ADULTS
Guideline Daily
Amounts =
Males: 2500kcal/day
Females: 2000kcal/day
Nutritional requirements
Nutrient requirements
Macronutrient
Dietary Reference Value
Total fat
Population average no more than 35% food
energy
Saturated fatty acids
Population average no more than 11% food
energy
Trans fatty acids
Populations average no more than 2% food
energy
Total carbohydrate
Populations average no more than 50% food
energy
Non-milk extrinsic sugars
(NMES) [added sugars]
Population average no more than 11% food
energy
Non-starch polysaccharides
(NSP) [fibre]
Adult population average at least 18g per day
Salt
Adult population average no more than 6g/day
Putting this information into practice
HIGH OR LOW?!
Total fat
•High: more than 17.5g of fat per 100g
•Low: 3g of fat or less per 100g
Saturated fat
•High: more than 5g of saturated fat per
100g
•Low: 1.5g of saturated fat or less per 100g
Sugars
•High: more than 22.5g of total sugars per
100g
•Low: 5g of total sugars or less per 100g
Salt and sodium
•High: more than 1.5g salt per 100g (or
0.6g sodium)
•Low: 0.3g salt or less per 100g (or 0.1g
sodium) http://www.nhs.uk/change4life/Pages/food-labels.aspx
The eatwell plate
Fruit and vegetables
• What counts?
• Eat plenty (should make up one third of daily
food intake)
• Eat five portions per day
• Eat a variety
• Why?: vitamins,
minerals, fibre
But what’s a portion?…
2
1
0
1
2/3
Starchy carbohydrates
• What counts?
• Eat plenty (should make up one third of daily food
intake)
• Aim for at least one food from this group at
each meal
• Choose wholegrain varieties if
possible
• Why?: carbohydrates (main
source of energy), fibre, some
calcium, some iron, B vitamins,
folate
Practical tips to eat more starchy foods
Breakfast
Lunch
Dinner
Meat, fish & alternatives
• What counts?
• Eat moderate amounts – red & processed meat
70g/day max
• Aim to eat two portions (140 g) oily fish/week
• No limit for eggs – eat in moderation
• Why?: protein, iron, B vitamins
(especially vitamin B12),
vitamin D, magnesium,
omega-3 fatty acids
Milk and dairy foods
•
•
•
•
What counts?
Does not include: butter, eggs and cream
Eat moderate amounts
Serving = 200ml of milk, 150g pot of yogurt,
30g (matchbox size)
cheese
• Why?: Calcium, zinc,
iodine, protein, vitamins
B12, B2 and A
Fats and sugars
• What counts?
• Eat sparingly
• Some fat essential, but foods with fat can be
high in calories
• Two essential fats – omega-3 and
omega-6 fatty acids
• Sugar adds sweetness to foods, but
associated with tooth decay
How much is enough?
Current population dietary intakes
NMES (sugar):
intakes exceeded
requirements for
all age groups
Vitamins:
from food were
close to/above
requirements
Saturated fat :
exceeded requirements
(19-64 years)
Minerals:
below requirements in
some
age groups (particularly
11-18 year olds)
Eat well, work well!
• We consume at least 1/3 of our daily calorie
intake while at work
• What we eat affects our health but also work
performance
• Keep hydrated, bring healthy
snacks and a packed lunch
6-8 glasses/day
Some take home messages
• Start by making small changes – they can make a
big difference!
• Base food choice on eatwell plate
• Remember: balance
• Check food labels when shopping
• Get active and be a healthy weight
• Eat well at work
• Avoid getting thirsty
• Don’t skip breakfast

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