Review for Midterm Exam

Report
Review for Midterm Exam
Human Nutrition (Nutr 101)
What you Designing
A Healthy
eat and
Diet
why
The
Human
Body
Carbohydrates
Lipids
100
100
100
100
100
200
200
200
200
200
300
300
300
300
300
400
400
400
400
400
500
500
500
500
500
What you eat and why
100
Q: What does it mean when we say a nutrient
is essential?
A: The nutrient is necessary for health and
cannot be made by the body (must be
obtained through food)
What you eat and why
200
Q: Name the 6 classes of nutrients.
A: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins,
Vitamins, Water, and Minerals
What you eat and why
300
3) A candy bar nutrition label says that it has 240 calories
and 29 grams of total carbohydrate. How many calories
from carbohydrates are in the candy bar? What percent of
the total calories are from carbohydrates?
A: 116 calories from carbohydrate, 48%
of the calories are from carbs
What you eat and why
400
Q: Leptin and ghrelin: Which one is made by the
stomach and which is made by adipose cells? Which
one makes you feel hungry and which makes you
feel satiated?
A: Leptin is made by adipose cells and
makes you feel satiated; ghrelin is made by
the stomach and makes you feel hungry.
What you eat and why
500
Q: Name the top 3 causes of death in the US in order.
5
A: Heart disease, cancer, stroke
Designing a Healthy Diet
100
Q: Fill in the blanks: “Consume a ________ of foods,
__________ by a ____________ intake of each food.
A: Variety, balanced, moderate
Designing a Healthy Diet
200
Q: What is the difference between energy density and
nutrient density?
A: Energy dense foods have lots of calories
for their weight. Nutrient dense foods
have lots of nutrients for their weight.
Designing a Healthy Diet
300
Q: Choose one of these types of studies and briefly
explain how it works: Epidemiology study, case control
study, double blind study.
A: Epidemiology studies look at what large groups of
people have in common to determine what behaviors
are healthy. Case control studies look at people with a
disease and people without the disease and see what
they’re doing differently. Double blind studies pick
one group of people to take one drug or supplement
and another group of people to take a placebo, and
neither the participants nor the person who gives
them the treatment knows who’s getting what.
Designing a Healthy Diet
400
Q: Explain what each of the following means:
RDA, AI, and UL.
A: RDA is recommended dietary allowance (amount
that gives at least 95% of people enough of the
nutrient). AI is adequate intake, set for nutrients
when there’s not enough information to set an RDA.
UL is upper limit – get more than this and you may
have toxicity symptoms.
Designing a Healthy Diet
500
Q: Name and briefly describe each of the ABCDEs for
doing a nutritional assessment.
A: Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical,
dietary, environmental – see p. 43 for
descriptions.
The Human Body
100
Q: Name the organs that food travels through in the
digestive system in order, starting with the mouth.
A: Mouth, esophagus,
stomach, small intestine, large
intestine.
The Human Body
200
Q: Where do each of the following go after being
absorbed by the cells surrounding the villi in the
small intestine: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins?
A: Carbs and proteins enter a portal vein and go
to the liver. Fats enter a lymph vessel, circulate to
body cells, and eventually reach the liver as well.
The Human Body
300
Q: What is a hormone? What does the hormone insulin do?
A: A hormone is a chemical messenger.
Insulin tells liver and muscle cells to
take up blood glucose and connect it to
make glycogen.
The Human Body
400
Q: If you took sucrase from the small intestine and moved
it to the stomach right before you drank some soda, what
would the sucrase be likely to do?
A: The sucrase would denature (unravel)
and have no effect on the sugars from
the soda.
The Human Body
500
Q: What are some symptoms of celiac disease, what does it
do to your small intestine, and how is it treated?
A: Trouble digesting foods because of an
allergic reaction to gluten that flattens the
villi in the small intestine. Treated by
eliminating gluten from the diet.
Carbohydrates
100
Q: Name the three kinds of monosaccharides
commonly found in foods.
A: Glucose, fructose, and galactose.
Carbohydrates
200
Q: Match each of these polysaccharides with one of
the following phrases: Straight chain, branched chain,
most branched chain.
Amylopectin
Glycogen
Amylose
A: Amylopectin = branched chain;
glycogen = most branched chain;
amylose = straight chain.
Carbohydrates
300
Q: What causes type I diabetes? What causes
type II diabetes?
A: Type I diabetes is caused by an autoimmune response that
kills your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (often set off
by a virus). Type II diabetes is caused by continually high
blood glucose and insulin levels so that your cells stop
responding well to insulin.
Carbohydrates
400
Q: What are 2 negative consequences of getting too much
fiber (more than 60 g per day)?
A: Dehydration and trouble absorbing
some minerals.
Carbohydrates
500
Q: Describe the process of carbohydrate digestion: which
carbs get digested in the mouth? What happens in the
stomach? The small intestine? The large intestine?
A: Salivary amylase starts breaking up starch in the mouth, but
quits when it hits stomach acid. Pancreatic amylase in the small
intestine breaks things down to disaccharides, and sucrase,
lactase, and maltase break these into monosaccharides that get
absorbed. Soluble fiber is fermented by the bacteria in the large
intestine and insoluble fiber passes into the stool without
digestion.
Lipids
100
Q: What is the difference between a saturated and an
unsaturated fatty acid?
A: Unsaturated fatty acids have at
least one double bond between
carbons, saturated ones have only
single bonds between carbons.
Lipids
200
Q: What two types of fatty acids are essential? Name a
food that contains each of the two kinds.
A: Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. Omega 3
is in fish, walnuts, flaxseed oil, etc. Omega 6 is
in vegetable oils (canola, olive, corn, etc.)
Lipids
300
Q: What do emulsifiers do? Which of the 3 types of
lipids are good emulsifiers?
A: Break oils into smaller droplets.
Phospholipids.
Lipids
400
Q: What manufacturing process leads to foods with
a high percentage of trans fatty acids? What is the
difference between the structure of a cis fatty acid
and the structure of a trans fatty acid?
A: Partial hydrogenation. Cis fatty acids have two
hydrogens on the same side of the molecule, causing it
to bend. Trans fatty acids have one hydrogen on each
side of the molecule, causing no bend in the fatty acid.
Lipids
500
Q: What are the 4 kinds of lipoproteins? Give a brief
description of what each of them does in the body.
A: Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL.
See p. 182-184 for descriptions.

similar documents