Review for Midterm Exam Human Nutrition (Nutr 101) What you Designing A Healthy eat and Diet why The Human Body Carbohydrates Lipids 100 100 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 200 300 300 300 300 300 400 400 400 400 400 500 500 500 500 500 What you eat and why 100 Q: What does it mean when we say a nutrient is essential? A: The nutrient is necessary for health and cannot be made by the body (must be obtained through food) What you eat and why 200 Q: Name the 6 classes of nutrients. A: Carbohydrates, Lipids, Proteins, Vitamins, Water, and Minerals What you eat and why 300 3) A candy bar nutrition label says that it has 240 calories and 29 grams of total carbohydrate. How many calories from carbohydrates are in the candy bar? What percent of the total calories are from carbohydrates? A: 116 calories from carbohydrate, 48% of the calories are from carbs What you eat and why 400 Q: Leptin and ghrelin: Which one is made by the stomach and which is made by adipose cells? Which one makes you feel hungry and which makes you feel satiated? A: Leptin is made by adipose cells and makes you feel satiated; ghrelin is made by the stomach and makes you feel hungry. What you eat and why 500 Q: Name the top 3 causes of death in the US in order. 5 A: Heart disease, cancer, stroke Designing a Healthy Diet 100 Q: Fill in the blanks: “Consume a ________ of foods, __________ by a ____________ intake of each food. A: Variety, balanced, moderate Designing a Healthy Diet 200 Q: What is the difference between energy density and nutrient density? A: Energy dense foods have lots of calories for their weight. Nutrient dense foods have lots of nutrients for their weight. Designing a Healthy Diet 300 Q: Choose one of these types of studies and briefly explain how it works: Epidemiology study, case control study, double blind study. A: Epidemiology studies look at what large groups of people have in common to determine what behaviors are healthy. Case control studies look at people with a disease and people without the disease and see what they’re doing differently. Double blind studies pick one group of people to take one drug or supplement and another group of people to take a placebo, and neither the participants nor the person who gives them the treatment knows who’s getting what. Designing a Healthy Diet 400 Q: Explain what each of the following means: RDA, AI, and UL. A: RDA is recommended dietary allowance (amount that gives at least 95% of people enough of the nutrient). AI is adequate intake, set for nutrients when there’s not enough information to set an RDA. UL is upper limit – get more than this and you may have toxicity symptoms. Designing a Healthy Diet 500 Q: Name and briefly describe each of the ABCDEs for doing a nutritional assessment. A: Anthropometric, biochemical, clinical, dietary, environmental – see p. 43 for descriptions. The Human Body 100 Q: Name the organs that food travels through in the digestive system in order, starting with the mouth. A: Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine. The Human Body 200 Q: Where do each of the following go after being absorbed by the cells surrounding the villi in the small intestine: carbohydrates, fats, and proteins? A: Carbs and proteins enter a portal vein and go to the liver. Fats enter a lymph vessel, circulate to body cells, and eventually reach the liver as well. The Human Body 300 Q: What is a hormone? What does the hormone insulin do? A: A hormone is a chemical messenger. Insulin tells liver and muscle cells to take up blood glucose and connect it to make glycogen. The Human Body 400 Q: If you took sucrase from the small intestine and moved it to the stomach right before you drank some soda, what would the sucrase be likely to do? A: The sucrase would denature (unravel) and have no effect on the sugars from the soda. The Human Body 500 Q: What are some symptoms of celiac disease, what does it do to your small intestine, and how is it treated? A: Trouble digesting foods because of an allergic reaction to gluten that flattens the villi in the small intestine. Treated by eliminating gluten from the diet. Carbohydrates 100 Q: Name the three kinds of monosaccharides commonly found in foods. A: Glucose, fructose, and galactose. Carbohydrates 200 Q: Match each of these polysaccharides with one of the following phrases: Straight chain, branched chain, most branched chain. Amylopectin Glycogen Amylose A: Amylopectin = branched chain; glycogen = most branched chain; amylose = straight chain. Carbohydrates 300 Q: What causes type I diabetes? What causes type II diabetes? A: Type I diabetes is caused by an autoimmune response that kills your insulin-producing cells in the pancreas (often set off by a virus). Type II diabetes is caused by continually high blood glucose and insulin levels so that your cells stop responding well to insulin. Carbohydrates 400 Q: What are 2 negative consequences of getting too much fiber (more than 60 g per day)? A: Dehydration and trouble absorbing some minerals. Carbohydrates 500 Q: Describe the process of carbohydrate digestion: which carbs get digested in the mouth? What happens in the stomach? The small intestine? The large intestine? A: Salivary amylase starts breaking up starch in the mouth, but quits when it hits stomach acid. Pancreatic amylase in the small intestine breaks things down to disaccharides, and sucrase, lactase, and maltase break these into monosaccharides that get absorbed. Soluble fiber is fermented by the bacteria in the large intestine and insoluble fiber passes into the stool without digestion. Lipids 100 Q: What is the difference between a saturated and an unsaturated fatty acid? A: Unsaturated fatty acids have at least one double bond between carbons, saturated ones have only single bonds between carbons. Lipids 200 Q: What two types of fatty acids are essential? Name a food that contains each of the two kinds. A: Omega 3 and Omega 6 fatty acids. Omega 3 is in fish, walnuts, flaxseed oil, etc. Omega 6 is in vegetable oils (canola, olive, corn, etc.) Lipids 300 Q: What do emulsifiers do? Which of the 3 types of lipids are good emulsifiers? A: Break oils into smaller droplets. Phospholipids. Lipids 400 Q: What manufacturing process leads to foods with a high percentage of trans fatty acids? What is the difference between the structure of a cis fatty acid and the structure of a trans fatty acid? A: Partial hydrogenation. Cis fatty acids have two hydrogens on the same side of the molecule, causing it to bend. Trans fatty acids have one hydrogen on each side of the molecule, causing no bend in the fatty acid. Lipids 500 Q: What are the 4 kinds of lipoproteins? Give a brief description of what each of them does in the body. A: Chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL, and HDL. See p. 182-184 for descriptions.