CLNART 050_Chapter 9

Report
•Chapter Number 9
•The Flow of Food:
Service
Class Name
Instructor Name
Date, Semester
Book Title
Book Author
1
9.0
Learning Objectives
After this presentation, you should be able to complete the following
Learning Outcomes
9.1
Time and temperature requirements for holding
hot and cold TCS food
9.2
Ways of preventing time-temperature abuse & crosscontamination when displaying & serving food
9.3
The requirements for using time rather than
temperature as the only method of control when
holding ready-to-eat food
9.4
Ways of minimizing bare-hand contact with
ready-to-eat food
2
9.0
Learning Objectives
After this presentation, you should be able to complete the following
Learning Outcomes
9.5
How to prevent staff from contaminating food during
service
9.6
How to prevent customers from contaminating selfservice areas
9.7
The possible hazards of transporting food and ways of
preventing them
9.8
The possible hazards of serving food off-site and ways of
preventing them
9.9
The possible hazards of vending food and ways of
preventing them
3
9.0 KEY TERMS
• Sneeze guards: Food shields placed
over self-service displays and food
bars that extend seven inches
beyond the food and fourteen
inches above the food counter.
• Off-site service: Service of food to
someplace other than where it
is prepared or cooked, including
catering and vending.
9.0 KEY TERMS
• Temporary units:
Operations
operating in one location for no
more than 14 consecutive days in
conjunction with a special event
or celebration. Usually serve
prepackaged food or food requiring
only limited preparation.
• Mobile units: Portable foodservice
operations, ranging from concession
vans to full field kitchens, capable
of preparing and cooking elaborate
meals.
9.1
Ways of preventing time-temperature abuse & crosscontamination when displaying & serving food
HOLDING FOOD FOR SERVICE
• To keep food safe during holding, consider
the following:
– Temperature
• Hold hot food at an internal temperature of 135°F
(57°C) or higher.
• Hold cold food at an internal temperature of 41°F
(5°C) or lower.
– Thermometer
• Use a thermometer to check temperatures.
• Never use the temperature gauge on a holding unit
to do it.
– Time
• Check food temperature at least every four hours.
• Throw out food that is not being held at the correct
temperature.
9.1
Ways of preventing time-temperature abuse & crosscontamination when displaying & serving food
HOLDING FOOD FOR SERVICE
• Reheating food
– Never use hot-holding equipment to
reheat food unless it is built to do so.
– Reheat food correctly, then move it to
the holding unit.
• Food covers and sneeze guards
– Cover food and install sneeze guards to
protect food from contaminants.
• Policies
– Create policies about how long the
operation will hold food and when it
will be thrown out.
9.2
Ways of preventing time-temperature abuse & crosscontamination when displaying & serving food
SERVING FOOD SAFELY
• Service Staff Guidelines
– Service staff can contaminate food simply by
handling the food-contact areas of glasses, dishes,
and utensils.
– Service staff should use these guidelines when
serving food:
9.2
Ways of preventing time-temperature abuse & crosscontamination when displaying & serving food
SERVING FOOD SAFELY (cont.)
•
•
•
Hold dishes by the bottom or edge.
Hold glasses by the middle, bottom, or stem.
Do not touch the food-contact areas of
dishes or glassware.
•
Carry glasses in a rack or on a tray to avoid
touching the food-contact surfaces.
Do not stack glasses when carrying them.
•
•
•
•
Hold flatware by the handle.
Do not hold flatware by food-contact
surfaces.
Store flatware so that servers grasp handles,
not food-contact surfaces.
9.2
Ways of preventing time-temperature abuse & crosscontamination when displaying & serving food
SERVING FOOD SAFELY (cont.)
• Avoid bare-hand contact with
food that is ready to eat.
• Use ice scoops or tongs to get ice.
• Never scoop ice with your bare
hands or a glass. A glass may chip
or break.
9.3
The requirements for using time rather than temperature as the only
method of control when holding ready-to-eat food
HOLDING FOOD WITHOUT TEMPERATURE
CONTROL
• Your operation may want to display
or hold TCS food without
temperature control. Here are
some examples of when you might
hold food this way:
– When displaying food for a short
time, such as at an off-site catered
event, as shown in the photo
– When electricity is not available to
power holding equipment
– If your operation displays or holds
TCS food without temperature
control, it should do so under certain
conditions.
9.3
The requirements for using time rather than temperature as the only
method of control when holding ready-to-eat food
COLD FOOD
• You can hold cold food without temperature
control for up to six hours if you meet these
conditions:
– Hold the food at 41°F (5°C) or lower before
removing it from refrigeration.
– Label the food with the time you removed it
from refrigeration and the time you must
throw it out.
– The discard time on the label must be six
hours from the time you removed the food
from refrigeration.
– Make sure the food temperature does not
exceed 70°F (21°C) while it is being served.
– Throw out any food that exceeds this
temperature.
– Sell, serve, or throw out the food within six
hours.
9.3
The requirements for using time rather than temperature as the only
method of control when holding ready-to-eat food
HOT FOOD
• You can hold hot food without
temperature control for up to four
hours if you meet these conditions:
– Hold the food at 135°F (57°C) or
higher before removing it from
temperature control.
– Label the food with the time you
must throw it out.
– The discard time on the label must
be four hours from the time you
removed the food from temperature
control, as shown in the photo.
– Sell, serve, or throw out the food
within four hours.
9.4
Ways of minimizing bare-hand contact
with ready-to-eat food
KITCHEN STAFF GUIDELINES
• Bare-hand contact
– Food handlers must wear single-use
gloves whenever handling ready-to-eat
food.
– As an alternative, food can be handled
with spatulas, tongs, deli sheets, or
other utensils.
• Serving Utensils
– Separate utensils for serving each food
item. Clean and sanitize them after each
serving task. If using utensils continuously,
clean and sanitize them at least once every
four hours.
9.4
Ways of minimizing bare-hand contact
with ready-to-eat food
KITCHEN STAFF GUIDELINES (cont.)
• Utensil storage
– Store serving utensils in the food
with the handle extended above
the rim of the container. You
can also place them on a clean
and sanitized food-contact
surface. Spoons or scoops used
to serve food, such as ice cream
or mashed potatoes, can be
stored under running water that
is at least 135°F (57°C).
How to prevent staff from contaminating
food during service
9.5
RE-SERVING FOOD SAFELY
•
Service and kitchen staff should also know
the rules about re-serving food previously
served to another customer.
– Returned menu items
•
Do not re-serve food returned by a customer.
– Plate garnishes
•
•
Do not re-serve plate garnishes such as fruit or
pickles.
Throw out served but unused garnishes.
– Condiments
•
•
Serve condiments in their original containers or in
containers designed to prevent contamination.
Offering condiments in individual packets or
portions can also help keep them safe.
Never re-serve uncovered condiments. Do not
combine leftover condiments with fresh ones.
Throw away opened portions of condiments after
serving them to customers.
9.5
How to prevent staff from contaminating
food during service
RE-SERVING FOOD SAFELY (cont.)
• Bread and rolls
– Do not re-serve uneaten bread or rolls to other
customers.
– Change linens used in bread baskets after each customer.
• Prepackaged food
– In general, you may re-serve only unopened,
prepackaged food in good condition. This includes
condiment packets, and wrapped crackers. You may also
re-serve bottles of ketchup, mustard, and other
condiments
• The containers must remain closed between uses.
9.6
How to prevent customers from
contaminating self-service areas
SELF-SERVICE AREAS
• Self-service areas can be contaminated
easily.
• Follow these guidelines to prevent
contamination and time-temperature
abuse:
– Protection
• Use sneeze guards located 14 inches (36
centimeters) above the counter and
extend 7 inches (18 centimeters) beyond
the food.
• Food can also be protected by placing it
in display cases or by packaging it to
protect it from contamination.
• Whole, raw fruits and vegetables and
nuts in the shell that require peeling or
hulling before eating do not require the
protection measures discussed above.
How to prevent customers from
contaminating self-service areas
9.6
SELF-SERVICE AREAS (cont.)
• Labels
– Label food located in self-service areas.
• Raw and ready-to-eat food
– Typically, raw unpackaged meat, poultry, and seafood cannot be
offered for self-service.
• Refills
– Do not let customers refill dirty plates or use dirty utensils at selfservice areas.
– Assign a staff member to monitor guests.
– Post signs reminding customers not to reuse plates and utensils.
• Utensils
– Stock food displays with the correct utensils for dispensing food.
– This might include tongs, ladles, or deli sheets
9.7
The possible hazards of transporting food
and ways of preventing them
OFF-SITE SERVICE
• Off-site service such as delivery, mobile/temporary
kitchens, and vending machines can present special
challenges.
• Those who operate these services need to follow the
same food safety rules as permanent operations.
• Food should be protected from contamination and
time-temperature abuse.
• Facilities and equipment used to prep food need to be
clean and safe.
• Menu items should contribute to safe service. Food
needs to be handled correctly as well.
9.7
The possible hazards of transporting food
and ways of preventing them
OFF-SITE SERVICE (cont.)
• Delivery
– Many operations prep food at one location and then deliver it to remote
sites. The longer the time between preparation and consumption, the
greater the risk that food will be exposed to contamination or timetemperature abuse.
– When transporting food, follow these safety procedures:
• Containers: Pack food in insulated, food-grade containers. They should be designed
so food cannot mix, leak, or spill.
• Delivery vehicles: Clean the inside of delivery vehicles regularly.
• Personal hygiene: Practice good personal hygiene when distributing food.
– Internal food temperatures
• Check internal food temperatures. If containers or delivery vehicles are not holding
food at the correct temperature, reevaluate the length of the delivery route or the
efficiency of the equipment being used.
• Labels: Label food with a use-by date and time, and reheating and service instructions
for staff at off-site locations
– Storage
• Store raw meat, poultry, and seafood and ready-to-eat items separately. For example,
store raw chicken separately from ready-to eat salads.
9.8
The possible hazards of serving food offsite and ways of preventing them
CATERING
• Caterers must follow the same food safety rules as
permanent operations.
– Food must be protected from contamination and timetemperature abuse.
– Facilities must be clean and sanitary. Food must be
prepared and served correctly, and staff must follow good
personal hygiene practices.
– Catering often presents unique challenges.
– Follow these guidelines to keep food safe.
• Utilities—Make sure the service site has the correct utilities:
– Safe water for cooking, dishwashing, and handwashing
– Garbage containers stored away from food-prep, storage, and serving
areas
9.8
The possible hazards of serving food offsite and ways of preventing them
CATERING (cont.)
• Insulated containers
– Use insulated containers to hold TCS food.
– Raw meat should be wrapped and stored on ice.
– Deliver milk and dairy products in a refrigerated vehicle or on ice.
• Cold food
– Serve cold food in containers on ice or in chilled, gel-filled containers.
If that is not desirable, the food may be held without temperature
control according to the guidelines specified in this chapter.
• Ready-to-eat food
– Store ready-to-eat food separately from raw food.
• Leftovers
– If leftovers are given to customers, provide instructions on how they
should be handled. Information such as a discard date and the food’s
storage and reheating instructions should be clearly labeled on the
container.
9.8
The possible hazards of serving food offsite and ways of preventing them
TEMPORARY UNITS
• Temporary units typically
operate in one location for
less than 14 days.
• Foodservice tents or kiosks set up
for food fairs, special celebrations, or sporting events may
be temporary units.
• Here are some additional guidelines:
– Temporary units should be constructed to keep dirt and pests
out.
– The safe-handling rules discussed throughout this book apply
to food prep in temporary units.
– Safe drinking water also needs to be available for cleaning,
sanitizing, and handwashing.
9.8
The possible hazards of serving food offsite and ways of preventing them
MOBILE UNITS
• Mobile units are portable facilities ranging from
concession vans to elaborate field kitchens.
• Those serving only frozen novelties, candy,
packaged snacks, and soft drinks need to meet
basic sanitation requirements.
• However, mobile kitchens prepping and serving
TCS food need to follow the same rules required
of permanent foodservice kitchens.
• Both might be required to apply for a special
permit or license from the regulatory authority.
9.9
The possible hazards of vending food and
ways of preventing them
VENDING MACHINES
• Vending operators should protect food from
contamination and time-temperature abuse.
This is especially important when prepping
and packaging food and during transport and
delivery.
• Follow these guidelines:
– Check product shelf life daily. Products often
have an expiration or use-by date, such as
that shown in the photo.
– Keep TCS food at the correct temperature. It
should be held at 41°F (5°C) or lower, or at
135°F (57°C) or higher.
– Dispense TCS food in its original container.
– Wash and wrap fresh fruit with edible peels
before putting it in a machine.

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