Ecology To Those Who Shall Inherit the Earth… Flow of Energy Love is energy and energy is everything What is an Ecosystem? • Interactions among biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) factors • Let’s try to draw one How does energy move? • Essentially all energy comes from the sun • Moves from autotrophs (plants) to heterotrophs (not plants) • Heterotrophs (aka. Consumers) – must consume energy; cannot make their own • Autotrophs (aka. Producers) – Produce their own energy • Most use radiant energy from the sun to produce chemical energy in the form of glucose sugar • What is this process called? Photosynthesis! What about the other producers? • MOST use photosynthesis to produce energy • Others use energy from chemical reactions to produce organic molecules • Called Chemosynthesis • Bacteria and archaea How do other organisms obtain energy? • Heterotrophs or consumers – take in energy by breaking down compounds in organisms they eat • Trophic levels: • Producers • Primary consumers – eat producers • Secondary consumers – eat primary consumers • Tertiary consumers – eat secondary consumers • Quaternary consumers – eat… guess what they eat? • Organisms participate in different levels Sun Producer Primary producer Secondary consumer Decomposer What are decomposers? • Usually fungi or bacteria • Decomposers obtain energy from organic wastes • fallen leaves or dead organisms • Fungi usually break down plant matter • Bacteria usually break down animal matter • Break down complex molecules into simpler ones • Helps cycle carbon and nitrogen elements • Use secreted enzymes to break down food • Enzymes – special proteins that speed up reactions Are there ways to show energy flow? • There are 2! • Food chains – path of energy from producer to decomposer • Food web – chains that interconnect through multiple feeding relationships • Arrows point the direction of energy flow from one organism to the next (What’s doing the eating) • Energy travels in 1 direction • Energy does NOT cycle through the ecosystem, unlike matter • What would be the simplest food chain? Producer consumer Web Chain What types of eating habits are there? • Herbivore – eats only producers (eats plants) • Omnivore – eats both producers and consumers (eats plants and animals) • Carnivore – eats consumers (eats meat only) Is there a model for energy flow? • Lets go back to the ecosystem drawing • Models are visual depictions that make a feature of the world easier to understand and are used to make predictions and test hypotheses etc… • Food pyramids are models for energy flow • Must show feeding relationships in food chains as well as amount of energy passed up trophic levels • 10% of energy is ALL that passes to the next trophic level Checkpoint • Use the following food chain to create an energy pyramid: Grass mouse snake hawk • If the amount of energy present in the producers of this pyramid is 1.35 x 105 kilocalories, identify how much energy is present in each trophic level • What if we add decomposers to consume the hawk after it dies? Assignment! • Paper – pencil food chain lab • Complete the packet – due tomorrow • Materials • • • • Packet Writing utensil (no red, pink, or green) Scissors Glue Biogeochemical cycles What goes around comes around What are biogeochemical cycles? • Bio = life • Geo = earth • Chemical = chemical • So, biogeochemical cycles are the patterns that elements and chemicals move through and between biotic organisms and their abiotic environment • 3 major cycles include: • Carbon – oxygen cycle • Nitrogen cycle • Water How does the carbon-oxygen cycle work? • C and O exist in all organisms • Both exist in the atmosphere as CO2 and O2 • Steps photosynthesis • Plants take in CO2 using _____________ and convert it into carbohydrates • Plants release O2 • Animals take in O2 and release through CO2 respiration • Decomposers break down C stored in dead organisms and return it to the atmosphere What is the “geo” part of the carbon-oxygen cycle? • Carbon is also released into the atmosphere by: • burning fossil fuels • Volcanic eruptions • Human or naturally caused forest fires Where do fossil fuels come from? • Carbon in the bodies of deceased organisms that lived millions of years ago were subjected to heat and pressure deep within Earth turning them into fossil fuels • Any combustion reaction (anytime you burn organic things), CO2 and water vapor are produced AND oxygen is consumed • Burning fossil fuels • Burning wood for fuel/forest fires • Forest fires What is the nitrogen cycle and why is it important?? • Movement of nitrogen through the organisms, water, rocks, minerals, and atmosphere • Nitrogen is ESSENTIAL to living things as it makes up: • Nucleic acids and DNA • Amino acids and proteins • ATP (high energy molecule used for cellular energy) How does nitrogen move through the cycle? • Atmosphere contains approximately 78% nitrogen… that most organisms cant use • Nitrogen fixation into ammonia (ammonification) changes nitrogen into a usable form for organisms done by: • Soil bacteria • Certain plants, called legumes, have a mutualistic relationship with certain bacteria that allow nitrogen fixation • Ex. Peanuts, most beans, and peas What happens after the nitrogen is fixed? • Assimilation - Plants absorb nitrogen once it is in the form of usable nitrates • Animals obtain nitrogen by eating plants • Nitrogen in animals is passed through the food chain and returned to decomposers • In low oxygen environments bacteria convert nitrogen to gas which returns to the atmosphere = denitrification • Marine environments • Soil What is the hydrologic cycle? • Water cycle • Driven by energy from the sun • Important steps: • Evaporation – liquid to gas by energy from sun or heat • Condensation – gas to liquid • Precipitation – falls • Respiration – water vapor produced by cells when breaking down glucose • Transpiration – liquid to gas through plants • Vascular plants (large plants) use a tissue called xylem to move water up the plant • Water leaves through holes in leaves called stomata Assignment! • Complete the worksheet for biogeochemical cycles • Color AND answer questions • Use the document to help you answer questions • Materials • Colored pencils or crayons • Pencil • Due tomorrow Symbiotic Relationships Living together isn’t always easy What is the hierarchy of biological systems? • • • • • • • • • • • • Atoms – come together to make: Molecules – come together to make: Organelles – come together to make: Cells - come together to make: Tissues - come together to make: Organs - come together to make: Organ systems – come together to make: Organism - come together to make: Populations - come together to make: Communities - come together to make: Ecosystems - come together to make: Biosphere We’ll focus on these for now What are the parts of ecology hierarchy?? • Population - A group of organisms of the SAME species living together • Community – A group of organisms of DIFFERENT species living together • Ecosystem – A group of living and non-living things in an environment • Biosphere– all living things on Earth How do ecosystems remain stable? • Population of individual species will cycle regularly and predictably as energy flow remains fairly constant • Organisms live in habitats • Depends on availability of water, shelter, and food • The role and organism plays in its environment is its niche • What it eats, where it eats, and its effect on the environment Can organisms occupy the same habitat and niche? • Organisms may have the same habitat • Organisms may NOT have exactly the same niche within the habitat • 2 plants may both live in the same habitat – occupy the same niche – but they may require different amounts of light Can organisms live together? • Yes these types of relationships are Relationship called symbiotic/symbiosis Mutualism • Symbiosis is an interdependent relationship between two different organisms or a different species – at Commensalism least 1 of them ALWAYS benefits • Mutualism – both species benefit • Commensalism – one organism benefits and the other is unaffected • Parasitism – one organism benefits and one is harmed Parasitism Benefits Unaffected Harmed XX X X X Each X represents a different organism X Assignment! • Symbiotic relationships cut and paste • Due tomorrow • Materials: • Scissors • Glue or tape • Worksheet What about other relationships? • Predator – prey: one organism kills and eats another • Key role in the ecosystem keeping population sizes balanced • Populations that are too high are prone to: • Starvation • disease Predator population increases Prey population increases Prey population decreases Predator population decreases What about organisms that require the same things? • They compete: interact where they try to use the same resources at the same time • Intraspecific competition – organisms of the same species compete for food, water, shelter, mates • Interspecific competition – organisms of different species compete for food, water, shelter • Most successful competitors are best adapted to their ecosystem Assignment • Online virtual lab examining competition • Found here: http://glencoe.mheducation.com/sites/dl/free/0078757134/383928/ BL_04.html • Materials: • • • • Computer Internet Handout Pen/pencil Why do organisms communicate? • They communicate to their own and to other species • Helps organisms survive by allowing them to: • • • • ID themselves Attract mates Warn of predators Protect living space – territory (can be small or large) • Many animals use chemical markers to identify their territory • Many animals use sound to warn another animal they are encroaching • Many animals will fight to defend their territory How do organisms communicate? • Sound • Ex: Whale songs, wolf howls, your nonstop chatter • Visual • Ex. Waggle dance in bees, courtship dances • Chemical • Ex. Pheromones – chemicals used by one organism to elicit a response from another (used by bees, ants, etc…) Assignment! • Population dynamics worksheet • Due tomorrow • Materials: • Two colored pencils or pens (you may use patterns on your graph to distinguish between species if you wish to use 1 pencil or pen) • Graphing worksheet Population dynamics What goes up must come down Brief Review: • What is a population? • All the organisms of the same species living in an area • What is the hierarchy of ecology? • Organisms population community ecosystems biosphere • Tell me the factors discussed so far that determine population change? • • • • Number of predators Amount of resources (food, water, shelter) Number of mates Disease What makes up an ecosystem? • Biotic factors – living things • Other organisms: bacteria, plants, animals, fungi, protists (5 kingdoms) • Abiotic factors - non living things • Rocks, sunlight, temperature, precipitation, inorganic chemicals (sodium, nitrogen, potassium, etc…) How do populations grow and decline? • Affected by 4 factors: • Births • Deaths • Immigration – movement of organisms INTO an area • Emigration – movement of organisms OUT OF an area • Population equation: • Pop. = (births + immigration) – (deaths + emigration) • When (deaths + emigration outnumber (births + immigration), what happens to the population? What makes birth and death rates rise? • Birth rates: • Usually higher in developing countries • Tend to rise when there is a need for more people to work • Death rates: • Usually higher in developing countries • Result from lack of food and water • Also result from lack of medical care and sanitation (enable rapid spread of disease) What makes birth and death rates fall? • Birth: • Usually lower in developed countries • Increase cost in having children • Death: • • • • Usually also lower in developed countries Better medical care Better sanitation and personal hygiene Better access to food and water • Changes in population • If population cannot adapt to changing environments they decline • If populations do adapt to changing environments they increase Is there selection for survival? K selection (think kanagaroo) R selection (think roaches) • Few babies born to an individual organism • High amount of parental care • Slow maturation • Long gestation • Long life span • Many babies born to an individual organism • Little to no parental care • Quick maturation • Short gestation • Short life span Assignment! Estimating population lab part 1 Estimating population lab part 2 • Mark and recapture method • Random sampling • Materials: • • • • • plastic baggie A lot of white beans 10 black beans Handout Pencil/pen • Materials: • • • • • Paper for cutting 2 baggies Scissors (optional) Handout Pencil/pen What limits population size? • Most population stabilize over time or reach carrying capacity • Carrying capacity – number of organisms an environment can support • Limiting factors – are biotic or abiotic things in the environment that control population • • • • • • Number of predators – biotic Disease – biotic Amount of food – biotic (food is organic) Precipitation – abiotic Sunlight – abiotic Amount of water – abiotic What kind of limiting factors depend on population density? • Density – dependent limiting factor – limits the population based on the size of the population • Biotic factors • Have more affect on the population when numbers are high • Include: • Competition • What do organisms compete for? • Predation • Parasitism • Disease • Tuberculosis What kind of limiting factors don’t depend on population density? • Density-independent limiting factors – control growth of population regardless of density • Abiotic factors • Do not depend on the size of the population to control population • Include: • • • • • Forest fires Droughts Tsunamis Other natural disasters Pollution caused by humans When does a population stabilize? • Populations are stable when they reach their carrying capacity • Carrying capacity – the number of organisms an ecosystem can support due to limited resources • Can change as amount of resources change • Creates an S shaped curve on a population graph • What’s happening to the factors in the population equation? How is carrying capacity affected by ecosystems? • Depends on: • number of organisms living there • Size of the ecosystem • Available resources • Rainforests have higher carrying capacity than a desert • Large areas of land have higher carrying capacities than small areas of land What happens when a population does not stabilize? • Exponential growth – population continues to grow and does not show presence of limiting factors • J shaped curve • Only population known to currently do this is humans How does using resources affect the environment? • Higher population = higher demand on resources • Ex: growing human population needs more energy more burning of fossil fuels • What has this done to the carbon-oxygen cycle? • Increased the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere • What has this done to the planet? • Caused the greenhouse effect where heat from the sun is trapped on Earth instead of reflected into space • What has this done the temperatures of the planet? • Increased carbon dioxide correlates to higher global temperatures over time How do ecosystems change over time? How do ecosystems change over time? Assignment! • Population dynamics worksheet • Due tomorrow • Materials • Pencil/pen • worksheet How Humans Affect The Environment A clear conscience is usually the sign of a bad memory How has human population changed? • What kind of growth do humans show? • Exponential (for the last 200 years or so) • What kind of curve does this growth have? • J shaped • What does this mean has happened to birth and death rates? • Birth rates have increased and death rates have decreased How does population growth affect the environment? • Higher population = more demand on resources • Resources are limited • Limiting factors will control the size of the population • Population will eventually reach carrying capacity • Researchers work to address these limits • Increase energy efficiency and find new energy resources • Work to increase agricultural yield • This increases the carrying capacity How do humans affect biodiversity? • Biodiversity – the number of different organisms living on Earth or in an ecosystem • More humans = more demand on natural resources • Natural resource - any part or product of the environment that is used by humans or other organisms • Limited • When humans use them they are unavailable for other organisms • May physically change the ecosystem and harm organisms • Often results in loss of habitat • Organisms that can’t move often die How do habitats get destroyed? • What is a habitat? What is a niche? • Place where an organism lives, its job or role • Deforestation – removal of all trees in an area of forest • • • • Land is cleared for farms, mines, or towns Wood products needed Destroys habitats forcing species out Reduces biodiversity What if humans don’t affect many organisms? • Even the removal of 1 specie from an ecosystem can change it drastically • Keystone species – species that plays a critical role in the community of the ecosystem • Ex. Eastern oyster on NC coast have 3 major roles • Food source • Filter water • Build reefs that house as many as 300 other species • Their population has declined by around 90% due to overharvesting • Higher pollution and decline in other species have resulted How does pollution affect the environment? • Pollution – the release of harmful substances or energy into the environment • Burning fossil fuels is a major cause of increased CO2 levels in the atmosphere • Derforestation also increases CO2 levels as: • Many trees are burned releasing carbon • Trees are no longer available to perform photosynthesis • Increased CO2 may increase global warming – an increase in average global temperatures What else does burning fossil fuels cause? • Acid rain – rain that has a pH lower than 5.6 • Produced by nitrogen and sulfur (both released by burning fossil fuels) mixing with water in the atmosphere • Damages plants • Harmful to animals feeding on those plants • Changes pH of aquatic habitats What else does pollution do to water? • Eutrophication - excess nutrients (like fertilizer) are released into water causing massive algal blooms • hog farms in NC are major causes of this • Steps: • Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) wash into water • *sediment may also block sunlight • • • • • Make large algal blooms Nutrients are used up and algal blooms die Decomposer populations increase Decomposers use extra oxygen Low oxygen levels kill off fish and other organisms What do pesticides do to the environment? • Pesticides – are used to kill pest animals – DDT • Reduce disease • Increase food production • Can sicken or kill animals that are NOT target pests • Taken in by organisms as they feed • Passed up the food chain • Bioaccumulation – chemicals are stored and built up in tissues over time • Biomagnification – chemicals become more concentrated at higher trophic levels Assignment! • Deadly Links • You will need: • • • • • Handout Pencil/pen A picture of your animal (grasshopper, shrew, or owl) A plastic baggie Paper chips How do activities directly impact biodiversity? • Extinction – permanent dying out of a species • • • • • Pollution Land clearing Overhunting Overfishing Introduction of invasive species • Invasive species – non-native organism that is introduced to an area and takes over by out competing the native organisms How does activity affect NC ecosystems? • Piedmont Urbanization: • Increasing demand for land habitat destruction • Coastal Regions: • Construction beach erosion • Sweeping/raking beach beach erosion • Beach erosion makes beaches more vulnerable to storm damage What about fishing and hunting? • Overhunting – killing organisms at a rate faster than the population can renew its numbers • Tigers • Whales • Many many others • Overfishing – harvesting fish or shellfish at a rate faster than the population an renew its numbers • Eastern oyster How do invasive species affect ecosystems? • What is an invasive species? • Non-native species that is introduced and takes over an environment • Sometimes intentionally introduced: • Garden flowers and vegetables spread • Pets released into the wild • Sometimes accidentally introduced: • Seeds or insects hide in luggage or shipments • Shipping • Invasive species can often out compete native species • Invasive species usually have few or no predators as limiting factors Assignment! • Investigate the presence of invasive species in NC • List: • • • • • • The name of the organisms The type of organism The classification (domain, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species) Origin and method of introduction Where found Environmental impact • Tell class • Materials: • Pencil/pen • Paper • laptop Conservation Unless someone like you cares a whole awful lot, nothing is going to get better. It’s not. ~ Dr. Seuss What is conservation? • Conservation – careful use and protection of resources • Renewable resources - those that can be replaced through natural process at nearly the same rate they are used • • • • Crops – affected by limiting factors Air Water Forests – affected by limiting factors • Nonrenewable resources – cannot be replaced through natural processes as quickly as they are used • Fossil fuels • Minerals Why care about environmental responsibility? • Stewardship – taking care of something belonging to others • Sustainability – ability of an ecosystem to survive indefinitely • Using resources to meet current needs while maintaining enough to supply future generations – sustainable development • Community planning – making things closer to cut down on travel • Renewable energy – solar, hydroelectric, etc • Eliminating misuse of land/preserving soil How do humans help the environment? • Teach awareness • Prevent and repair damage • Limiting hunting and fishing to conserve wildlife • Fuel efficient cars • Energy efficient appliances and responsible use • Turning lights off, low flow bathroom appliances • • • • Plant only native species in gardens Less paper products Use less water for lawns and cars Grow and buy organic foods What about the current damage? • Many activities alter ecosystems so that organisms can no longer live there • Endangered species – have a population so small they are in immediate danger of becoming extinct • Threatened species – extinction is a threat but not an immediate one endangered and threatened species list How do we protect these organisms? • Laws are put in place to protect these organisms • illegal to hunt/harvest • Restrict chemical use • Habitat restoration – improves the conditions of the damaged habitat so they are similar to before the disturbance • Researchers look at: • • • • carrying capacity Interactions of species How widely distributed organisms are Oyster population is increasing due to building new reefs and release of larval oyster from farms Assignment! • Ecology project • Use the guidelines available on the wiki. • The project is lengthy, 5 phases • Assign roles to each person within each phase to complete the project in a timely manner Resources for pictures • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://www.warc.com/Blogs/Ecosystem_Marketing_%E2%80%93_3_Ways_to_Thrive_in_your_Natural_Environment.blog?ID=1696 http://americanindianfoundation.com/mission_statement0.aspx http://deepseacreatures.org/interesting/chemosynthesis http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/mushroom http://na.signwiki.org/index.php/Decomposer http://www.bigelow.org/edhab/fitting_algae.html https://legacy.etap.org/demo/biology_files/lesson6/instruction6tutor.html http://www.learner.org/courses/essential/life/session7/closer5.html http://montessori123.com/products/herbivore-carnivore-or-omnivore-sorting-game http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bacteria http://ieet.org/index.php/IEET/more/smart20121129a http://www.wisegeekhealth.com/what-is-the-process-of-protein-synthesis.htm http://www.biologycorner.com/APbiology/intro/notes_ch1_life.html http://www.greatscopes.com/microscope.htm http://rock.genius.com/2143517/The-company-band-lethe-waters/Moth-and-a-candle-frenzied-it-flies-sole-mad-obsession-certain-demise http://ykonline.yksd.com/distanceedcourses/Courses/Biology/lessons/SecondQuarterLessons/Chapter7/7-3.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrogen_cycle http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-j58nTAvgyPA/T68reE7wU3I/AAAAAAAACqk/9j7y5wNMQjQ/s1600/Volcanic+eruption.jpg http://3.bp.blogspot.com/-r2wQs4HuFR8/TdtjJ9N2PqI/AAAAAAAAAAQ/6FUjTC2dNJs/s1600/91641-050-0088637E.jpg http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coal http://www.brecorder.com/markets/energy/europe/171588-oil-above-$108-on-libyan-supply-worries-ukraine.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DNA http://chemwiki.ucdavis.edu/Under_Construction/Case_Study%3A_Thermodynamics_of_ATP http://www.ucl.ac.uk/~sjjgsca/ProteinStructure.html http://www.education.noaa.gov/Freshwater/Water_Cycle.html http://www.popularmechanics.com/science/health/med-tech/4337088 http://healthylogica.blogspot.com/2012/08/tips-to-clean-lungs-of-smokers.html http://scienceforkids.kidipede.com/biology/animals/respiration/ http://www.paradoja7.com/alveoli-image/ http://www.rise.duke.edu/apep/pages/page.html?000927 http://www.wildlife-viewing-photography-tours.com/whale-watching.htm http://feed723.photobucket.com/albums/ww240/mote/2009/May%202009/feed.rss https://animalplanet.wikispaces.com/Megan+and+Katrina's+Invertebrate+Reflection+and+Analysis http://shelledy.mesa.k12.co.us/staff/computerlab/ColoradoLifeZones_Subalpine_Reptiles_Amphibians.html Resources for pictures • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://www.allposters.com/-sp/Moor-Frog-Rana-Arvalis-Tadpoles-with-External-Gills-Posters_i9012529_.htm https://www.boundless.com/biology/textbooks/boundless-biology-textbook/the-respiratory-system-39/systems-of-gas-exchange-219/skin-and-gills-and-tracheal-systems-831-12074/ http://mountainhightree.com/blog/index.php/2013/09/the-essential-nutrient-carbon/ http://anjungsainssmkss.wordpress.com/2012/02/ http://www.tutorvista.com/content/biology/biology-iv/organisms-environment/organism-and-environment.php http://www.indiacsr.in/en/tag/national-population-policy/ http://community.norton.com/t5/Ask-Marian/Cyber-Security-Term-Watering-Hole-Attack/ba-p/1004915 http://elperchero3.blogspot.com/2013/11/unit-3-ecosystem-5th-grade.html http://www.backpacker.com/september_08_phenomenon_predator_prey/nature/12555 http://www.ck12.org/biology/Competition/lesson/Competition/ http://1996phuc.blogspot.com/2011/04/blog-9-define-different-forms-of.html?_sm_au_=iVV8R6WZ7DnF0jpV https://pantherfile.uwm.edu/s1/www/home.html http://raimonsibilo.wordpress.com/2012/03/04/my-territory/ http://timberwolfhq.com/wolves-howl-video-gallery/ http://academic.reed.edu/biology/courses/BIO342/2012_syllabus/2012_WEBSITES/mkam_site-5/adaptive_value.html http://rdt-eoy-stuff.wikispaces.com/ http://www.susps.org/overview/numbers.html http://www.advisorperspectives.com/dshort/commentaries/Syria-Assad-and-the-Arab-Spring.php http://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/standard/geography/population/population_change/revision/2/ http://www.msudeer.com/carryingcapacity.asp http://death-valley-ecology.weebly.com/density-dependent-and-independent-limiting-factors.html http://www.bio.georgiasouthern.edu/bio-home/harvey/lect/lectures.html?flnm=grop&ttl=Population%20growth&ccode=el&mda=scrn http://ecology02.wikispaces.com/Population+and+Community+Ecology http://www.islands.com/wallpaper/rainforest-waterfall http://hdwallsource.com/free-desert-wallpaper-16497.html http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/mammals/gray-kangaroo/ http://www.thedubiaroach.com/roach-care-sheet.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Survivorship_curve http://www.autonet.ca/en/2014/05/21/solar-panel-roads-to-power-our-cars-homes-and-deliver-internet http://www.naturalresourceslandservices.com/home.htm http://www.leegov.com/gov/dept/naturalresources/Pages/NaturalResources.aspx http://web.nmsu.edu/~jfsavage/re_tree_haiti/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_oyster http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prairie_dog\ http://www.edfenergy.com/energyfuture/energy-gap-climate-change/greenhouse-effect http://environmental-chemistry.wikispaces.com/Environmental+Effects+of+Acid+Rain http://www.waterencyclopedia.com/A-Bi/Acid-Rain.html http://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/Contexts/Soil-Farming-and-Science/Sci-Media/Images/Eutrophication http://sustainable-nano.com/2013/12/17/the-cautionary-tale-of-ddt-biomagnification-bioaccumulation-and-research-motivation/ Resources for pictures • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • http://www.galapagos.org/newsroom/lonesome-george-arrives-in-ny/ http://www.ourstate.com/kudzu/ http://coastalcare.org/2011/01/rising-waters-threatened-the-coast-of-north-carolina/ http://m24digital.com/en/2012/01/21/in-photos-global-outrage-by-people-who-pay-up-to-15-000-to-hunt-giraffes/ http://www.worldwildlife.org/threats/overfishing http://nsunews.nova.edu/nova-southeastern-university-researcher-invents-software-predict-lionfish-invasion/ http://blogs.fco.gov.uk/boydmccleary/2013/11/05/the-caribbean-ukots-and-the-lionfish-an-innovative-response-to-invasive-species-threats/ http://kansas.sierraclub.org/kansas-chapter-conservation-conference-july-19/ http://netenlist.com/different-types-of-renewable-energy-resources/ http://www.ck12.org/earth-science/Renewable-Versus-Non-Renewable-Resources/lesson/Renewable-Versus-Non-Renewable-Resources/ http://www.uvm.edu/vtvegandberry/factsheets/winterrye.html http://meridianenergy.com.au/renewable-energy/ http://theanimals.pics/endangered-specie/38/endangered-species/ http://www.worldwildlife.org/stories/unicorn-of-the-sea-narwhal-facts http://www.mrgesa.com/Default.aspx?tabid=206 http://thinkbluemarin.wordpress.com/2009/12/01/habitat-restoration-and-holiday-wreath-making/ http://science.kennesaw.edu/~jdirnber/Bio2108/Lecture/LecEcology/EcologyPopln.html http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/476227/primary-succession Informational Resources • Zierdt-Warshaw, Linda. North Carolina End-of-Course Coach Biology. New York: Triumph Learning, 2012. Print.