3.Ecosystems Energy 2012

Report
What is Ecology ?
The study of
how
organisms
interact with
one another
and their nonliving
environment
So Then What is an Ecosystem ?
Biosphere
An ecosystem is
how all of the living
and non-living things
interact together in
an area.
Ecosystems
Communities
Populations
Organisms
So Then What is an Ecosystem ?
Looking at the chart
to the right..
Our BIOSPHERE is the
part of the Earth where
the organisms exist
Biosphere
Ecosystems
Communities
And an ECOSYSTEM is
that area where the living
and non-living things
interact.
Populations
Organisms
Energy for the Ecosystems
A. Every ecosystem on Earth gets its energy from
the same source:
SUNLIGHT!!!
Producers
Organisms that can use sunlight or
chemical energy to produce food are
called: autotrophs
Producers
Photosynthesis: most common, uses
energy from sunlight to make food
Example: Plants, sea weed, algae
Producers
Chemosynthesis: uses energy form
inorganic chemical compounds to make
food
Example: Sulfur bacteria in Yellowstone
hot springs & deep sea hydrothermal
vents
Producers
Autotrophs are also called producers
Producers/Autotrophs: use energy to build
complex organic molecules out of
inorganic molecules
Producers
Describe the flow of energy through an
ecosystem: It goes in one direction
from sun  producers  consumers
Parts of an Ecosystem
An ecosystem contains BIOTIC (living) and
ABIOTIC (non-living) things
Examples of
BIOTIC
things:
• Plants
• Animals
• Fungi
• Bacteria
Parts of an Ecosystem
An Ecosystem is made of BIOTIC and ABIOTIC Components
ABIOTIC components are the NON-living parts of the
ecosystem
Examples of
ABIOTIC
things are:
• Water
• Air
• Temperature
• Sunlight
Food Chain
A Food Chain tells us what eats what in
an ecosystem. It shows the series of
organisms through which food energy
is passed.
Food Chain
What is happening in this food chain?
The insect
is eaten by
the frog
Food Chain
What does the insect eat?
Many
insects eat
the nectar
from
flowers
Food Chain
What might eat the frog?
Food Chain
What does this entire food chain show?
1) The slug
eats the plant
2) The frog eats
the slug
3) The heron
eats the frog
Food Chain
The arrow means
“is eaten by”
In this case the
dragonfly is eaten
by the frog.
Food Chain
Remember…
ALL food chains
begin with a
Producer
( Also known as an
Autotroph)
Food Web
In an ecosystem,
there are many
producers and
consumers.
Instead of a food
chain, we can use a
food web.
Food Web
Humans
Blue whale
Sperm whale
Killer
whale
A food web shows
the complex
relationship formed
by the overlapping
and interconnecting
food chains.
Elephant
seal
Crabeater seal
Leopard
seal
Adélie
penguins
Emperor
penguin
Petrel
Squid
Fish
Carnivorous plankton
Herbivorous
zooplankton
Krill
Phytoplankton
Energy Pyramid
Steps in a food
chain are called:
Trophic Levels.
A Trophic Level
is a level of
nourishment in a
food chain.
Energy Pyramid
The pyramid first
shows us the
Producers.
Remember…
Producers get their
energy from the sun.
Producers are the first
and largest Trophic
Level.
Producers
Energy Pyramid
Second, we see the
Primary Consumers
The Primary
Consumers get their
energy from eating the
Producers.
Primary Consumers
can be either
Herbivores or
Omnivores.
Primary Consumers
Energy Pyramid
Third, we see the
Secondary Consumers
The Secondary
Consumers get their
energy from eating the
Primary Consumers
Secondary Consumers
are Carnivores or
Omnivores
Secondary Consumers
Energy Pyramid
Fourth, we see the
Tertiary Consumers
The Tertiary
Consumers get their
energy from eating the
Secondary Consumers
Tertiary Consumers
are Carnivores or
Omnivores
Tertiary Consumers
Energy Pyramid
Some energy pyramids
can have a fifth Trophic
Level.
Primary Producers
Producers make their own food, from
abiotic factors, such as sunlight or
heat from chemical reactions.
Primary Producers
Producers are also known as
Autotrophs
Some examples are:
• Plants
• Algae
• Bacteria
Consumers
Consumers are organisms that get
their energy by eating other organisms
Consumers
Consumers are also known as
Heterotrophs
Consumers can be:
• Herbivores
• Carnivores
• Omnivores
• Detritivores (Decomposers)
Consumers
Herbivores eat only plants.
Herbivores are also known as Heterotrophs
or Primary Consumers
Herbivore Examples:
• Large Mammals
(Such as cattle & deer)
• Insects
Consumers
Carnivores eat other animals
Carnivores are also known as Heterotrophs
or Secondary or Tertiary Consumers
Carnivore Examples:
• Lions, Tigers
• Wolves
• Sharks
• Snakes
Consumers
Omnivores eat both plants and animals
Omnivores are also known as Heterotrophs
or Consumers
Omnivore Examples:
• Humans
• Bears
• Mice
• Pigs
Consumers
Detritivores convert waste into
nutrients (also called decomposers)
Detritivore Examples:
• Worms
• Beetles
• Bacteria
• Fungi
Consumers
Scavengers break down dead plants
and animals (also called heterotroph,
consumer)
Scavenger Examples:
• Vulture
• Crow
• Hyena
Energy Pyramid
Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer.
Energy
pyramids: Are a
way to graph how
much energy is
passed up the
food chain from
one organism to
the next
Energy Pyramid
Let’s look at the energy pyramid closer.
Only 10% of the
energy from the
prior trophic level
is passed on.
This is because
energy is lost to
the environment
as heat
Draw an Energy Pyramid
Energy Pyramid
If an energy pyramid consists of plants that contain
500,000 calories of food energy, how many calories of
energy would be available to consumers at each of the next
three trophic levels?
Trophic level
Tertiary consumers
Secondary consumers
Primary consumers
Primary producers
Energy Pyramid
Primary Consumers: 500,000 cal x .1 = 50,000 calories
Secondary Consumers: 50,000 cal x .1 = 5,000 calories
Tertiary Consumers: 5,000 cal x .1 = 500 calories
Trophic level
Tertiary consumers
Secondary consumers
Primary consumers
Primary producers
Food Web
What does these energy numbers tell us??
1) There are very few Tertiary consumers, because it takes a HUGE
amount of food energy to support them.
2) For a large population to exist, it needs to feed from the LOWEST
trophic level possible, because there is more food energy available.
Trophic level
Tertiary consumers
Secondary consumers
Primary consumers
Primary producers
Other Pyramid types
Besides the energy pyramid, we can also have pyramids of:
1) Numbers
2) Biomass
Biomass Pyramid
Represents the amount of living organic
matter at each trophic level.
Pyramid of Numbers
Shows the relative number of individual
organisms at each trophic level.
Draw a Pyramid of Numbers
Pyramid of Numbers
A pyramid of numbers reflects the number of species at each
trophic level.
For example: if we look at a forest, there may be
few rose bushes, but many insects that feed on
the rose bushes, with a pyramid like the one
below.
Pyramid of Biomass
A pyramid of biomass reflects the total amount of living tissue
at each trophic level.
For example: Looking at the same forest, the
biomass is great.
Sequoia National Park
Sequoia Trees
Gray Squirrels
Peregrine Falcons
Great Gray Owl
Caterpillars
Fence lizards
Bullfrogs
California Newt
Skunks
Beetles
Mice
Red tail fox
Bats
Grizzly Bear
Flies
Food Chain Simulation
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