Chapter 5 Human Performance and Limitations

Report
Ramp Resource Management Training
Version 1.0
Human Performance & Limitations
Nationaal
LuchtRuimtevaartlaboratorium – National Aerospace Laboratory NLR
Developed
for ECAST
by en
NLR/NLR-ATSI
Human Performance & Limitations
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
2
Topics
 Safety regulations
 Teamwork
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Team dynamics
Leadership
Communication
Team situational awareness
Cultural, ethnic and educational differences
 Threat and error management
 Human performance
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Stress
Fatigue
Alcohol, medicines and drugs
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
3
Stress
“The total absence of stress is death”
Dr. Selye; pioneer in human stress research
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Stress: 4 categories
 physical stressors

noise, temperature............
 physiological stressors

sick, lack of sleep............
 psychological stressors

time pressure, work pressure, emotional factors.........
 psycho-social stressors

personal relationship problems.........
Cumulative!
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
5
Stress Reactions
1. Physical
Increased heart rate
Tremors
Feeling hot
2. Emotional /Behaviour
Anger
Quiet
Nervous behaviour (tapping)
3. Cognitive (Thinking)
Less capacity
Slower thinking process
Forgetting
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
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Stress and performance
P
Stress
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
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Personal examples
of stressors
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Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
Stress through time Pressure
• What is the influence of time pressure
on job performance?
• What are possible causes of time
pressure?
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
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Stress reactions: coping
• Active
• Palliative reaction: smoking, relaxing... (Vodka!)
• Avoidance (humour)
• Emotional expression: anger....
• Social support
• Passive: depression
• Comforting thoughts
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Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
Active stress management
 Being aware of negative effects of time pressure
 Sufficient resources
 Planning & preparation
 Setting boundaries
 Solve personal problems (!)
 Recognise and reduce self-induced stress
 Use colleagues spare capacity
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
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Fatigue
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
12
Driving ...................and just a bit of sleeping
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIcG2lnDmqk
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
13
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
14
Fatigue
How do you recognise signs of fatigue?
 Yourself
 Others
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
15
Fatigue management
EMPLOYER
RESPONSIBILITIES
EMPLOYEE
RESPONSIBILITIES
 Ensuring safe work practices
 Fitness for work (e.g. adequate rest
(e.g. Sensible overtime
procedures).
and recuperation).
 Ensuring good work systems
(e.g. scheduling work at
appropriate times of the day).
 Appropriate and safe roster
design to allow for adequate
recuperation.
 Lifestyle management (including the
use of drugs and alcohol).
 Incidence reporting (of fatigue-
related incidents).
 Sleep well
 Appropriate and safe shift
length.
SHARED RESPONSIBILITY!
http://www.mirsa.com.au/docs/Fatigue_Management.pdf
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
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Fatigue management
DO
Don’t
 Eat your main meal at midday
 Eat large meals in the middle of the
or early evening.
 Eat light meals at night.
 Allow at least three hours to
digest food before sleep.
 Eat pasta, grains, sandwiches,
night.
 Eat food high in sugar and fat,
especially ‘fast food’.
 Eat lots of protein at night, such as
red meat, as it is difficult to digest.
salads etc. at night as they are
easily digested.
 Drink reasonable amounts of
liquid.
http://www.mirsa.com.au/docs/Fatigue_Management.pdf
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
17
Alcohol, Medicines and drugs
Developed for ECAST by NLR/NLR-ATSI
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