Ecosystem-based Adaptation in Marine and Coastal areas

Report
Ecosystem-based Adaptation
in Marine and Coastal Areas
Lynne Zeitlin Hale
Global Coastal and Ocean Forum
May, 2010
Adaptation is already a necessity –
need and cost increasing
The World Bank
estimates coastal
management and defense
as the most costly
component of adaptation:
Sea level rise
$30 billion/year for
developing countries
When Coastal Ecosystems are Lost
PEOPLE LOSE
Ecosystems provide
important services
that need to be
maintained:
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Food
Protection
Health
Income
Culture
Ecosystem-based Adaptation (EBA)
Management interventions that:
– Increase ecosystem and social resilience
•
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Better survival, faster recovery
More fish, tourism income, cleaner water
– Increase ability of coastal systems to provide protection
from sea level rise and storms
•
Reduced erosion, wave dissipation, storm surge
– Reduce costs of adaptation to climate change
•
Natural systems with self-maintenance and multiple benefits
EBA needs to be integrated within sustainable
development and comprehensive adaptation plans
Helping Coastal Nations and Communities
Reduce their Vulnerability and Adapt
• Visualize future problems & scenarios
• Provide decision support for adaptation and
resilience
• Identify management actions that can be taken
(science)
• Apply solutions
• Learn
• Communicate
• Build Capacity
Visualize future problems & scenarios;
Provide decision support
Choisseul, Solomon Islands
Long Island, New York, USA
Managing for Ecosystem Resilience
Coral reefs
1998...a wake-up call
Enhance Ecosystem Resilience
TNC Resilience Model
Representation and Replication
Habitat Types
Multiples
Risk Spreading
Critical Areas
Refugia
Spawning Aggregations
Secure Sources
of Seed
Connectivity
Transport
Replenishment
Effective Management
Threat Abatement
Adaptive Strategies
Strong Recruitment
Enhanced Recovery
RESILIENCE
Share Climate-Smart Management Approaches
(www.reef resilience.org)
Global Outreach
Hawaii
Micronesia
Coral Triangle
Indian Ocean
Bahamas
Lesser Antilles
Meso-American Reef
Florida Keys
Solutions: “Green” Infrastructure:
Cost effective shoreline protection
Mangroves, marshes, shellfish
reefs
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Baffle waves
Reduce erosion
Bind sediments
Trap new sediments
Support active accretion
Prevent mass movement of
debris during storms
Habitat Restoration for Coastal Protection:
Shellfish reefs
Largely extirpated habitat
Ongoing research at 40+
sites shows oyster
reefs:
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Reduce erosion
Improve water quality
Create habitat
Support fisheries
www.nature.org/shellfish
Habitat Restoration for Coastal
Protection: Mangroves
Threatened Habitat but
25% protected
Restoration possible;
Bangladesh:148,500 ha
•Indonesia: 48,923 ha
•Philippines:44,000 ha
•Vietnam: 67,637 ha
Rising to the Challenge
•Adaptation funding should prioritize coastal areas
•Integrate and prioritize Ecosystem-based Adaptation
within development planning and national adaptation
plans
•Clarify relative costs and effectiveness of green vs. grey
infrastructure for coastal hazard protection
•Integrate climate change consideration in hazard
mitigation and response plans
•Consider impacts of “hard” and sectoral adaptation
measures on coastal and marine ecosystems
Take action now – on mitigation and adaptation

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