Bixa Orellana - Cal State LA

Central and South America
Jenny Aleman-Zometa
Monique Quiroz
Annette Diaz-Santana
Yessenia Velazco
Bixa Orellana
Family: Bixaceae (Lipstick-Tree family)
Genus: Bixa
Species name: Bixa Orellana
Common English names: Annatto, Lipstick Tree
Common Spanish names: Achote, Bija
Shrub, 6-20 meters high, age up to 50 years
Shade-intolerant, grow in disturbed areas
Traditional Uses
• Indigenous groups in Piura, Peru
– Shoots
• Diarrhea
• Aphrodisiac
• astringent.
– Also used to treat liver disease and hepatitis.
– Traditional healers in Peruvian Amazon
squeezed juice from leaves
• Inflammation
• eye infections
• Columbian traditional healers
– Antivenin for snakebites
– Seeds used as an expectorant
– Roots used for digestion and as an anti-tussive
• In Guatemala leaves and roots used for
treatment of gonorrhea
• Used in Caribbean folkloric medicine to treat
diabetes mellitus
Modern Uses
Used as food colorant
Brazilian herbal medicine
– Leaf decoction
• heartburn
• stomach distress caused by spicy foods
• mild diuretic
• mild purgative.
– Also used for fevers, malaria and topically to treat
– Dried leaves boiled for 10 minutes in 1 liter of water.
One cup is served warm or cold 3 times daily after
meals to treat
• prostate disorders, internal inflammation, arterial
hypertension, high cholesterol, obesity, kidney
failure, and to eliminate uric acid.
– Also recommended as a vaginal antiseptic and as a
wash for skin infections
United States
– Used to keep a healthy cholesterol balance, combat
arterial plaque and maintain healthy glucose and
triglyceride levels.
Active compounds
• Norbixin, water-soluble annatto derivative,
found to retard oxidative deterioration (2003).
• Bixin is a carotenoid responsible for producing
• The leaves showed some activity against gonorrhea,
however the roots did not. (1995)
• Crude ethanolic extracts from leaves showed
potential antibacterial effect against S. aureus
•Preliminary investigations performed on dogs given
crude plant extracts indicate that it exhibits
hypoglycaemic properties, it increased plasma insulin
concentrations (2005).
•Annatto extracts showed good free radical
scavenging capacity and color properties, new
functional applications for such extracts should be
explored by the food and cosmetic industries (2008).
Literature Cited
Caceres, A., H. Menendez, E. Mendez, E. Cohobon, B. E. Samayoa, E. Jauregul, E. Peralta, and G. Carillo.
Atigonorrhoeal activity of plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of sexually transmitted diseases. (1995).
Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 48:85-88.
Cardarelli, C.R., M. T., Benassi, and A. Z. Mercadante. Characterization of different annatto extracts based on
antioxidant and colour properties. (2008). LWT-Food Science and Technology. 41:1689-1693.
Kiokias, S., and M. H. Gordon. Antioxidant properties of annatto carotenoids (2003). Food Chemistry. 83: 523-529.
Ongsakul, M., A. Jindarat, and C. Rojanaworarit. Antibacterial effect of crude alcoholic and aqueous extracts of six
medicinal plants against staphylococcus aureus and escherichia coli. (2009). 23:153-156.
Russell, K.R.M., E.Y. St. A. Morrison, and D. Ragoobirsingh. Hypoglycaemic activity of Bixa orellana extract in the
dog. (2008). Methods Find Exp Clin Pharmacol. 30:301-305.
Carica Papaya
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Brassicales
Family: Caricaceae
Common names: Papaya, pawpaw, mugua, fruta bomba, lechosa,
melon tree
-not to be confused with pawpaw (Asimina triloba) or mugua
(Chaenomeles speciosa or Pseudocydonia sinensis )
*Papaya is closely related to the passionflowers (Passiflora spp)
• Fruit tree, grows 6-20 ft. It has a branchless trunk and a palm like
head foliage at the top. They flower and produce fruit. The trunk
remains soft wooded and does not develop true bark.
Growth Habit
• Papaya is native to southern Mexico, Central America
and northern South America.
• It thrives in tropical and frost free subtropical regions
and is now cultivated in most tropical countries (Brazil,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, India, Indonesia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Vietnam,
Philippines and Jamaica).
-In the U.S., papaya is cultivated in Hawaii, southern California and South
• First fruit tree to have its genome deciphered.
Active Compounds
• Papain and Chymopapain
• Proteolitic enzyme that aids in
digestion (breaks down proteins,
carbohydrates, and fats)
• Papain is obtained from a milky
sap (latex) produced by the
-Unripe fruit & leaves
-Sex of tree
• Processes of attaining the latex
must be done manually and is
time consuming
Uses of C. Papaya
• Food
-The ripe fruit is usually eaten
raw, without its skin or seeds.
Unripe fruit is eaten cooked in
curries, salads, and stews. Has a
high amount of pectin, which
can be used to make jellies.
-Fruit juice is a popular
-Black seeds are edible and have
a spicy taste. Sometimes ground
up and used as a substitute for
black pepper
-In some parts of Asia the young
leaves of papaya are steamed
and eaten like spinach
• Cooking
-Unripe fruit and tree’s leaves
are rich in papain, used in
tenderizing meat (check your
powdered meat tenderizers)
- Also used in chewing gum
Uses of C. Papaya
-used in some toothpaste, shampoos, and
face-lifting preparations
problems, antihelmenthic
(seeds also known to cause this),
treatment of arthritis,diabetes, applied
topically to remove freckles or brown
spots on the skin
-Juice is used to treat cuts, rashes, stings,
ulcers, warts, burns, and cancerous
growths on the skin
-Infusion prepared with the flowers
stimulates menstruation
-Decoction prepared by boiling the ripe
papaya in water is said to cure diarrhea
and dysentery among children
-Leaves are also made into tea as a
preventative for malaria
-Harrison Ford was treated for a
ruptured disc incurred during filming of
Indiana Jones by papain injections
Uses of C. Papaya
Women in many countries (India,
Bangladesh, Pakistan, Sri Lanka…)
have long used green papaya for its
contraception and abortion
-Enslaved women from the West
Medical research in animals has
confirmed its contraceptive and
abortion properties.
-0.1-3.2 mg/ml induced spasmodic
contraction of the uterine muscles
-Papaya seeds have contraceptive
effects in adult male langur monkeys
(decrease in sperm viability and
increase in sperm abnormality)
-Unripe papaya in large dosages may
cause this effect, however, ripe
papaya is not teratogenic and will not
cause miscarriage in small amounts.
A few more research findings…
• Fruit and seed extracts have pronounced bacterial activity as
antibacterial agents against E. Coli and Staphylococcus aureus
• Extract made from papaya leaves into a tea showed dramatic
anticancer effects including cancers of the cervix, breast, liver, lung,
and the pancreas
• Juice of papaya seems to inhibit cancer growth in in vitro studies,
thought to be due to lycopene or the immune system stimulation
• Seed extract may help protect the kidneys
"Papaya." Herbs To Herbs. 1 Jan. 2002. Web. 28 Nov. 2010.
"Carica Papaya {Caricaceae} Papaya." EEB Greenhouse Home Page. Web. 28 Nov. 2010.
"Carica Papaya." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 28 Nov. 2010.
Nutr, J. "Papaya (Carica Papaya) Consumption Is Unsafe in Pregnancy: Fact or Fable?
Scientific Evaluation of a Common Belief in Some Parts of Asia Using a Rat Model."
PubMED (2002): 199-203. Http:// 01 Aug. 2002. Web. 28 Nov.
Rahmat, Asmah Et Al. "Antiproliferative Activity of Pure Lycopene Compared to Both
Extracted Lycopene and Juices from Watermelon (Citrullus Vulgaris) and Papaya (Carica
Papaya) on Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cell Lines." Scialert (2002): 55-58. 1 Mar.
2002. Web. 28 Nov. 2010. <>.
University of Florida. "Papaya extract thwarts growth of cancer cells in lab tests."
ScienceDaily 10 March 2010. 28 November 2010
G, Yismaw. "The Invitro Assessment of Antibacterial Effect of Papaya Seed Extract
against Bacterial Pathogens Isolated from Urine, Wound and Stool." Unbound Medline
(2008): 46. Jan. 2008. Web. 28 Nov. 2010.
Smilax Regelii: Sarsaparilla
Taxonomy, distribution and ecology: Smilax
Family: Smilacaceae
Genus: Smilax
Species: regelii
Termed: Honduran or
brown sarsaparilla
Related to Lily
Brambled Vine that can
grow up to 50m
Part used: Root 6-8 feet,
odorless and tasteless
Range: Northern Central
America: Honduras,
Caribbean and Mexico
Active Compounds
• Plant Steroids: sarasapogening, smilagenin,
sitosterol, stigmasterol, and pollinastanol
• Saponins: sarsasaponin, smilasaponin,
sarsaparilloside, and silosterol glucoside
• Can be synthetized into human steroidss in lab such as
estrogen and testorene
Ethnomedical uses
• Used for centuries by the indigenous people of
Central and South America for sexual impotence,
rheumatism, skin ailments, and as a general tonic for
physical weakness
– found by New World trader and introduced into
European medicine in the 1500’s
• Tribes in Peru and Honduras used it for headaches,
joint pain and common cold.
• Shamans in the amazon use the root internally and
externally for leprosy and other skin problems.
Modern Uses
• Main uses
Psoriasis, dermatitis, leprosy and other skin disorders
blood purifier and general detoxification aid
general tonic, stimulant and hormonal regulator
arthritis, rheumatism and autoimmune disorders
which cause inflammation
5. Syphilis treatment
• Biological Research
– In 1942, it was reported in the New England Journal
of Medicine to improve the condition of psoriasis
Possible mechanism of action
Sarsaponin binding to endotoxins in skin
Traditional preparation
• One-half to 1 cup of a
standard root decoction
2-3 timesdaily.
• 1-2grams of root powder
in tablets or capsule daily
• 2-3 ml of a standard
tincture of fluid extract
may be taken twice a day
• Soft drinks and beverages
• "Database Entry: Sarsaparilla - Smilax Officinalis, Sarsaparilla,
Smilax Aristolochiaefolia, Smilax Glabra, Sarsaparilla, Smilax
Febrifuga, Smilx Ornata, Chinese Sarsaparilla, Smilax Regelii,
Smilax Japicanga." Wealth of the Rainforest - Pharmacy to the
World from Raintree Nutrition, Inc. Web. 29 Nov. 2010.
• "Smilax Regelii Information from NPGS/GRIN." GRIN National
Genetic Resources Program. Web. 29 Nov. 2010.
• "Smilax Regelii." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 29
Nov. 2010. <>.
Mimosa pudica
Yessenia Velazco
 Mimosa pudica (Sensitive Plant) (pudica = shy), is a
creeping annual or perennial herb.
 Also known as sensitive plant, humble plant, shameful
plant, sleeping grass, touch-me-not.
 It belongs to the Magnoliopsida group, familiy
Fabaceae, and sub-family Mimosaceae
 The species is native to South America and Central
America, but is now a pantropical weed.
 It grows in most well-drained soils and soils with low
concentrations of nutrients.
 Repeated burning encourage its spread in pastures.
 Sensitive plant is shade intolerant and does not
compete with tall vegetation or grow under forest
 Ayurvedic medicine used its root in the treatment
of leprosy, dysentery, vaginal and uterine complaints,
inflammations, burning sensation, asthma, and blood
 Unani healthcare system used its root in the
treatment of diseases arising from blood impurities
and bile, bilious fevers, jaundice, and leprosy.
 Decoction of root was used with water to gargle to
reduce toothache.
 It is very useful in diarrhea (athisaara), amoebic
dysentery (raktaatisaara), bleeding piles, and urinary
 It is mainly used in herbal preparations for
gynecological disorders, bronchitis, general weakness
and impotence.
Modern Uses
 In Western medicine, Mimosa pudica’s root is used for treating
insomnia, irritability, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), hemorrhoids,
skin wounds, and diarrhea.
 It is also used to treat whooping cough and fevers in children,
and there is some evidence to suggest that it effective in relieving
the symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis.
 All parts of the Mimosa plant are reportedly toxic if taken
directly. Its consumption is not recommended to pregnant or
nursing ladies. Due to these reports, it seems to be best to consult
a physician before using Mimosa internally.
 Research regarding safety in young children or those with severe liver or kidney disease have
not been found.
 Mimosa mucilage is a promising mucoadhesive polymer for deliver of buccal drugs.
 A research study was conducted at the Department of Chemistry, Cotton College, Assam,
India (August 2007). The researchers found that the components present in the roots of the
herb changed the timings of the release of many birth associated hormones leading to
extension of pregnancy. They concluded that the herb posses anti-fertility properties.
Active components
 Toxic alkaloid.
 Immobilizes the filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis
in less than one hour.
 Potent antiproliferative and apoptotic effects.
 Appears to inhibit the myotoxicity and enzyme activity of
cobra venom.
 Adrenalin like substance has been identified in the extract of its leaves.
 Some workers have reported the presence of Crocetin dimethyl Easter in the extract
of the plant.
 Roots contain tannin up to 10% and seeds contain a mucilage.
 The plant extract contains green yellow fatty oil up to 17%.
 The plant is reported to contain tubuline and a new class phytohormone turgorines
is found to be active in the plant.
Remarkable Feature
Mimosa pudica is remarkable because of its: Nyctinastic and seismonastic
movements. The movements are the result of a rapid loss of pressure in
strategically situated cells that cause the leaves to droop right before one’s eyes.
This evidence led to the rejection of the hypothesis that Mimosa pudica had
nerves and muscles.
Ahuja M., S. Kumar, M. Yadav. Evaluation of Mimosa Seed Mucilage as
Bucoadhesive Polymer. (2010). The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. 130: 937-944.

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