Developing Guidance Skills 1

Report
Deborah Neill
The student will be able to
…
 Identify goals of effective guidance
 List personality traits of effective early
childhood teachers.
 Describe principles of direct and indirect
guidance.
 Explain various techniques for effective
guidance.
 Summarize ways to promote a positive selfconcept in each child.
Guidance
The direct
and indirect
actions an
adult uses to
help children
develop
appropriate
behavior
patterns.
Prosocial
behaviors
The acts of kindness that
benefit others. These
behaviors demonstrate
cooperation and
helpfulness. Examples
are: accepting other’s
feelings or verbally and
physically comforting
others.
Teacher’s role in
guidance
•Your personality will
affect the behavior of the
children in your care.
•Teachers should interact
often with their children
and ask open-ended
questions.
•Teachers need to model
prosocial behaviors.
•Aggressive and
attention-seeking
behavior on the part of
the children is also
influenced by the
teacher.
General
Guidelines for
developing
effective
guidance skills
•Observe the children and
watch and note how
individual children behave in
certain situations.
•Ask yourself how you
respond teach of the children
in your class.
•Plan with other teachers.
Share observations, feelings,
and suggestions will help you
fully understand the children.
•Do not talk to other adults
when you are teaching. The
children’s needs should
always come first.
•Sit with the children
whenever possible. Be at
children’s eye level. You will
be easier to approach and
gain attention.
Indirect
Guidance
This type of
guidance
involves outside
factors that
influence
behavior. For
instance, the
layout of the
center or room
is a form of
indirect
guidance.
Direct
Guidance
Guidance that involves
nonverbal and verbal
actions. Facial expressions
are a form of
communication that can
give children a variety of
messages. Children gain
much information from
nonverbal actions.
Nonverbal actions
reinforce what you are
communicating verbally.
Direct Guidance Principles
1. Use simple language.
2. Speak in a relaxed voice.
3. Be positive.
4. Offer choices with care.
5. Encourage independence and cooperation.
6. Be firm.
7. Be consistent.
8. Provide time for change.
9. Consider feelings.
10. Intervene when necessary.
Put a twist on the words
you use.
Negative
Positive
1. “Do not put the puzzle
1. “Put the puzzle on the
2.
2.
3.
4.
5.
on the floor.”
“Do not touch
anything!”
“Do not run.”
“Quit screaming.”
“Do not get paint on
your clothes.”
3.
4.
5.
table.”
“Place your hands in
your pockets.”
“Please walk.”
“Use your Indoor
voice.”
“Put on a painting
smock.”
Techniques for effective
Guidance
 Positive
Reinforcement is a
technique that is
molded by rewarding
positive behavior.
 Warning is a
reminder that is given
for misbehaving and
their behavior will
have consequences.
 Natural
consequences are
those experiences that
follow naturally as a
result of a behavior.
They do not require
anyone’s intervention.
 Logical
consequences are
those that are
deliberately set up by
an adult to show what
will happen if a limit is
not followed.
Techniques for effective
Guidance
 Time Out is a guidance
technique that involves
moving a child away
from others for a short
period of time. Time
out is used when a
child’s disruptive
behavior cannot be
ignored. Time out
should never be used
as a form of
punishment.
 I-Messages is a way to
communicate your
feelings. An I-message
tells the child how you
feel about his or her
behavior. It doesn’t
place blame with the
child, it helps the child
learn how others view
his actions.
Praise
Ineffective Praise
1. “Good Job!”
2. “Beautiful work!”
3. “Wonderful!”
Effective Praise
1. “I like the way you
picked up the puzzle
and returned it to the
puzzle rack”
2. “You used the chalk to
make bright and dark
green colors.”
3. “I like the way you
shared your blocks with
Tommy. He is enjoying
using them.”
Guidance Techniques
Suggesting
 Suggesting means
placing thoughts for
consideration in the
children’s minds. For
instance: During snack
time, you may suggest
for a child to try a new
fruit. Simply state “This
fruit is delicious.”
 Effective teachers use
suggestions many times
each day.
Prompting
 Prompting differs from
suggesting because a
response is required of a
prompt. An example
maybe :”Glenda, what
must we remember
when riding bikes?”
 Prompting can also be
nonverbal. An example
maybe a smile to show
your approval.
Guidance
Persuading
 When you persuade a
child you are
encouraging them to act
or behave in a certain
way by appealing to their
basic wants and needs.
Redirecting
 Redirection is diverting
the child’s attention in a
different direction.
 Redirection encourages
children to express
themselves in more
socially acceptable ways.
Guidance
Modeling
 Modeling involves both
verbal and nonverbal
actions.
 Much of what children
learn is a result of
watching others and
imitating their behavior.
Listening
 An effective tool which
involves giving children
your full attention. It is
really effective when you
are on the eye level with
the child.
 Active listening is
listening first to the child
and then you respond to
the child by repeating
what the child just said.
Guidance
Ignoring
 This technique involves
not acknowledging the
child’s behavior.
 If the child’s behavior is
inappropriate and is
dangerous, avoid giving
the child attention but
keep the child safe.
Encouraging
 This technique helps the
child believe in
themselves.
 You are recognizing the
children efforts and
improvements.
 Some words to say are:
“You can do it all by
yourself! And “You must
be pleased.”
Developing or Promoting a
Positive
Self-Concept
Observe children carefully before speaking
Be open-minded.
Recognize and value differences in children.
Strive to gain more knowledge about the world
and share it with the children.
5. Provide the children with choices so that they
may become independent decision makers.
6. Constantly try to increase human relation skills.
7. State directions in a positive manner.
8. Encourage parents tot share their attitudes.
9. Avoid showing favoritism.
10. Listen to the children.
1.
2.
3.
4.
Review and Reflect
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
What are prosocial behaviors?
Describe one of the general guidelines you should follow for
effective guidance to occur.
Give three examples of actions useful in direct guidance.
Use positive guidance statements to rewrite the following:
A. Do not scream!
B. Do not get paint on your dress.
C. Do not spill the milk.
D. Quit running!
Explain the difference between natural consequences and
artificial consequences.
True or False. Ignoring is an appropriate guidance technique
when the child’s behavior is verbally harmful to other children.
List three ways that you can encourage the development of
children’s positive self-concepts.
Resources
 Working with Young Children Judy Herr; The
Goodheart-Willcox Company, Inc. 2004
 www.google.com; basscoast.vic.gov.au,
amonco.org, amonco.org,
htcacademic.mnscu.ed,
conwydaynursery.com, jupiterimages.com,
blogschmog.net

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