Single School Culture - the California Safe and Supportive Schools

Report
Alison Adler, Ed.D.
Single School Culture ©
[email protected]
1
Failure to address school
culture only produces
unintended discrepancies
between school
improvement efforts and
intended outcomes for
student achievement.
Sarason (1982)
2
A truly positive school climate is not
characterized simply by the absence of gangs,
violence, or discipline problems, but also by
the presence of a set of norms and values that
focus everyone’s attention on what is most
important and motivate them to work toward a
common purpose.
Jerald (2006), The Center for Comprehensive School Reform and Improvement
3
W

It is a way of organizing and running a school. It
begins with shared norms, beliefs, values, and goals
and results in agreed upon processes and
procedures that produce consistency in practice. It
is not a program.

A Single School Culture © results in consistency of
both adult and student practices related to:
–
–
–
–
Academics
Behavior
Climate
Data
4
Create a
Single
School
Culture ©
5

Ours is a practice primarily focused,
because of urgency, on adult change in
practice first.

Two approaches are used:
1.
2.
Make an intellectual case for Single School
Culture © process in one or more of four
domains (behavior, achievement, climate,
data).
If one cannot accept the case (a “show me”
individual), then we ask adults to change their
practices to produce real and observable
change/results in a time specific period.
6
 What interferes with a successful school
culture/program/initiative that has been
successful somewhere else (was researchbased, evaluated, etc.)?
 Why doesn’t it work in our school?
 Sometimes
the culture has developed
dysfunctional values and beliefs. Deal and
Peterson call this dysfunction “toxic
cultures.”
7
(Deal and Peterson,
1998)
1.
View students as the problem rather than as their valued
clients.
2.
Are sometimes part of negative subcultures that are hostile and
critical of change.
3.
Believe they are doing the best they can and do not search out
new ideas.
4.
Frequently share stories and historical perspectives on the
school that are often negative, discouraging, and demoralizing.
5.
Complain, criticize, and distrust any new ideas, approaches, or
suggestions for improvement raised by planning committees.
6.
Rarely share ideas, materials, or solutions to classroom
problems.
7.
Have few ceremonies or school traditions that celebrate what is
good and hopeful about their place of work.
8
(Deal and Peterson,
1998)

In these cultures, staff are afraid to offer suggestions or new
ideas for fear of being attacked or criticized.

Planning sessions led by school improvement teams are often
half-hearted due to the negativity fostered by hostile staff
who refuse to see that improvement is possible.

New staff who bring hope and a sense of possibility are
quickly squelched and resocialized into negative ways of
thinking.

Programs are poorly implemented because the motivation and
commitment to change is weak or nonexistent.

Plans fail for lack of will.

No one wants to work in these kinds of schools. But, it takes
leadership, time, and focus to rebuild these festering
institutions. Fortunately, most schools are not this negative,
though many have some of these cultural patterns that make
change problematic.
9
(Deal and Peterson,
1998)
 In
contrast to the poisonous places described
above, many schools have strong, positive
cultures. These are schools:
 Where staff have a shared sense of purpose,
where they pour their hearts into teaching.
 Where the underlying norms are of collegiality,
improvement, and hard work.
 Where rituals and traditions celebrate student
accomplishment,
teacher
innovation,
and
parental commitment.
 Where staff informally networks to provide a
social web of information, support, and history.
 Where success, joy, and humor abound.
(Deal and10Peterson, 1998)
 More
costly interventions
 Higher
 More
teacher mobility
alienated students
 Increasing
numbers of students who do poorly in
school/engage in negative behaviors
 Increased
tension among staff/administration
11
Range of Learners
Instructional Component
(categorized in terms of their
response to academic instruction)
(a) Classroom Teaching
(b) Enrichment Activity
ready
I = Motivationally
& able
Examples of Barriers:
Negative
II
III
attitudes toward schooling
Deficiencies
in necessary
prerequisite skills
Not very motivated/
lacking prerequisite
knowledge & skills/
= minor
vulnerabilities
Avoidant / very
deficient in current
capabilities. Has a
disability/ major
= health problems
Desired
Outcomes
Disabilities
School
Barriers
to
Learning
and community deficiencies
Lack
of home involvement
Lack
of peer support
Peers
who are negative influences
Lack
of recreational opportunities
Lack
of community involvement
Inadequate
school support services
Inadequate
social support services
Inadequate
health support services
12 and Taylor, 1998)
(Adelman
Guaranteed and Viable
Curriculum
Opportunity to Learn
Challenging Goals and
Effective Feedback
Monitoring
Time
Pressure to Achieve
Parental and Community
Involvement
Parental Involvement
Safe and Orderly
Environment
School Climate
Collegiality and
Professionalism
Leadership
Cooperation
13Marzano, R., 2003
Opportunity to Learn affects student achievement more than
double any other school factors.
Opportunity to Learn
31
Time
15
12
Monitoring
11
Pressure to Achieve
Parental Involvement
10
School Climate
8
4
Leadership
2
Cooperation
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
Percentile Gain*
* The average gain in percentile points of the average student in the experimental group compared to the average student in the control
group.
14
Marzano, R., 2000; Borman, G.D.; Hewes,
G.M. et al., 2000

Articulates a rigorous curriculum (clear target)
 Next Generation Standards; FCAT Item Specs
 Strong Core
 Lexile Maps

Has assessments based on the curriculum
 Diagnostic Tests
 Common Assessments (school and district
developed)

Monitors extent teachers cover the curriculum
 Learning Team Meetings
 Collaborative Planning
15

Allocates instructional time
 Literacy blocks

Engages students during instructional time
 Individual  Group
 Passive receiver  Active Reader, Writer and Talker

Ensures students are successful at the engaged tasks
 Diagnostic Tests
 Common Assessments (school and district developed)
 Teacher judgment in the classroom
 Shared strategies for teaching and RE-teaching
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 Articulates



academic goals for the school
SIP goals
Learning Team goals
Classroom goals
Alignment
 Monitors progress toward the goals
–Learning Team Meetings
–Collaborative Review of Student Work
–Progress of student mastery not pacing guide
–Just because we taught it, doesn’t mean they
got it
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 Communicates
that academic
achievement is the primary goal of
school
 Focuses on mastery of basic subjects
 Holds high expectations for all students
 Uses records to gauge student progress
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 Opportunity
to Learn
 Time
 Monitoring
 Pressure
to Achieve
SINGLE
SCHOOL
CULTURE ©
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…use of research-based best practices around the alignment of
curriculum, instruction, and assessment.
Teachers
and administrators directly teach and model efficacy beliefs (e.g.,
students know their targets, know what they need to do to get there, and
know that with effective effort they will reach them)
Teachers
and administrators analyze and use data to further student
achievement
Teachers
and administrators hold themselves accountable for students
meeting proficiency or higher and closing the achievement gap
Teachers
and administrators demonstrate the belief that if a student is not
progressing, it is not about the student’s ability, it is about needing new
strategies or a better delivery of the strategies
Teachers
and administrators are provided necessary staff development to
meet requirements of a teacher or administrator evaluation system
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Phases
Vision, Beliefs, and
Values
Practices (training,
fidelity of
implementation,
progress monitoring)
Outcomes
Sample Practices
•Efficacy
•Learning Teams
•Teacher
capacity/development/
teacher support
•College Readiness K-12
•Curriculum K-12
•Career Academies
•Learning Village
•Response to Intervention
(RtI)
•Technology Standards
•Marzano
Sample Sources of
Evidence
•Reports in EDW
•Reports/Records
Classroom/School
•Surveys
•Test Scores
•Usage Reports
•Observations
•Walkthroughs
•Instructional
Reviews
•Data Chats
21

Capabilities can be developed throughout life.
People can "get smart"—actually become more
intelligent—through the application of Effective
Effort.

When effort is mobilized (not debilitated), people
can control the pace and direction of their own
development.

Failure or difficulty can stimulate mobilized
effort when it is understood as feedback about
what people must do to improve.
Failure
debilitates only when used as the basis for
judgments about the innate limitations of an
individual.
22
©2004 The Efficacy Institute, Inc.
It is the capacity of adults to mobilize the
Effective Effort of children that determines
which children reach Proficiency and which do
not.
Practices make the difference – teachers and
parents who understand what to do to
actively engage children’s effort at learning
tasks get results.
©2004 The Efficacy Institute, Inc.
23
24
…is a uniform set of practices and procedures that are
aligned to a school’s mission and goals.
Classroom
procedures align with school rules and do not supersede
them. These practices and procedures are known and used
by all staff to positively norm both student and adult actions
by defining and linking behaviors and consequences while
recognizing appropriate behavior.
Teachers
and administrators positively state behavioral expectations and
model and coach them for students
Teachers and administrators consistently apply rules and consequences
in a non-emotional, ethical manner meant to change behavior
Teachers and administrators constantly recognize students when they
demonstrate appropriate behaviors
Students receive fewer discipline referrals thus enhancing academic
teaching and learning time
25
Phases
Vision, Beliefs, and
Values
Practices (training,
fidelity of
implementation,
progress monitoring)
Outcomes
Sample Practices
•Pro-social norming
•School-wide Positive
Behavior Support
•Alternative to Suspension
•FACE-IT (ATOD)
•In-School Suspension
•Restorative Justice
•Response to Intervention
(RtI)
•Court Liaison Initiative
•Safe Schools Case
Manager Initiative (mediation,
Sample Sources of
Evidence
•Reports in EDW
•Self-Assessment
Surveys
•Meeting Notes
•Team
Implementation
Checklist (TIC)
•Records
community, family, etc.)
26
Three-Tiered Model of School Supports
ACADEMIC and BEHAVIOR SYSTEMS
Tier 3: Intensive, Individualized
Interventions & Supports.
The most intense (increased time, narrowed focus,
reduced group size) instruction and intervention
based upon individual student need provided in
addition to and aligned with Tier 1 & 2 academic
and behavior instruction and supports.
Tier 2: Targeted, Supplemental
Interventions & Supports.
More targeted instruction/intervention and
supplemental support in addition to and aligned
with the core academic and behavior curriculum.
Tier 1: Core, Universal
Instruction & Supports.
General academic and behavior instruction and
support provided to all students in all settings.
Revised 12/7/09
27
17
 Increase
monitoring for future problem behavior
 Re-review rules & sanctions
 Extend continuum of aversive consequences
 Improve consistency of use of punishments
 Establish “bottom line”
 Zero tolerance policies
 Security guards, student uniforms, metal
detectors, video cameras
 Suspension/expulsion
 Exclusionary options (e.g., alternative programs)
28
3-5
Positive
School-wide
Expectations
o
Based on current problem
behaviors
o
Align with school mission and
goals
o
Applicable to all students, all
staff, & all
settings of the school
o
Fit the culture of your school
Respectful Responsible Learner
29
 Be
Respectful
Keep side conversations
limited
 Cell phones on silent
 Follow the attention signal

 Be

Return from breaks on
time
 Be


Responsible
a Learner
Use your work time wisely
Listen, take notes, ask
questions
30
I pledge to be:
On TIME
Ready for HARD WORK
With high EXPECTATIONS
DRESSED appropriately
Showing RESPECT to all
With ELECTRONICS out of
sight and turned off
With a positive ATTITUDE
MOTIVATED to succeed.
Signed______________________________
Date______
31
 3-5
Broad Universal Guidelines
 List of 2-3 Specific Social Behaviors
 Skills for Each School Setting
•
•
•
•
•
Observable
Measurable
Positively Stated
Understandable
Always Applicable
32
33
We have rules for 3 reasons and students need
to know why we have them:
 To protect students’ physical and
psychological safety
 To protect academic opportunity and
learning time
 To move a large number of students through
small areas in a short amount of time.
34
35
36
37

Create an enthusiasm among staff to work together.

Identify, prioritize, and select an issue to address
using a whole group process.

Gain consensus among staff for the interpretation of
the selected issue.

Identify specific practices to teach, coach, model,
and enforce the issue.

Determine desired outcomes and ways we would note
progress.
38
 Rules
and expectations are taught, modeled,
and coached by all teachers in a school
 Rules
are consistently and ethically enforced
by all adults on campus all of the time
 Student
behavior is positively normed when
staff works together to create an ethos of
fairness
39
…refers to the emotional atmosphere we generate around us,
the “context” of school and district. Climate involves the
perception of stakeholders concerning the fairness, openness,
friendliness, ethos of caring, and sense of welcome of the
school. It also refers to the degree of satisfaction experienced
within its organizational structure.
Teachers
and administrators support and agree upon normative practices for
adult-to-adult, adult-to-student, and student-to-student interactions
Teachers
and administrators have practices for using data and feedback to
monitor school climate and protocols for intervention are imbedded in training
Teachers
and administrators foster an inclusive atmosphere and sense of
connectedness among students, staff, and administrators
Teachers
and administrators report that student surveys indicate that students
feel supported and believe that their teachers want them to be successful
Teacher
turnover, student dropout rates, and absenteeism rates are reduced
40
Phases
Sample Practices
Vision, Beliefs, and
Values
•Student-led initiatives
Practices (training,
fidelity of
implementation,
progress monitoring)
•Problem Solving Teams
Outcomes
(e.g., Safe Schools Ambassadors,
mediation, government, sports, clubs,
SADD, SWAT, ethics, etc.)
(School Based Teams, School-wide
Positive Behavior Support, Climate
Teams, Hospitality, etc.)
•Response to Intervention
(RtI)
•Cooperative Partnerships
•School Connectedness
•Marzano
Sample Sources of
Evidence
•Reports in EDW
•Reports/Records
Classroom/School
•Surveys
•Test Scores
•Observations
•Conversations
with students and
parents
•Evaluations
41
…refers to both the formative and summative use of data
to recognize progress and areas of need in academics,
behavior, and climate or in the use of data itself.
Protocols are established to use data effectively to
improve the areas that are negatively impacting student
achievement and attainment. The purposes for utilizing
data are to:
Track
each student’s progress toward proficiency and higher
Plan for initial instruction and re-teaching for each student
Determine if practices and programs are working
Check alignment among standards, curriculum, instruction, and
assessments
Plan for teachers’ and administrators’ professional development
 Help teachers and administrators hold themselves accountable for
students meeting proficiency and higher and for closing the achievement
gap
Develop and monitor implementation of the School Improvement Plan (SIP)
and other school plans
42
Reading %
Satisfactory
or Higher
Math %
Satisfactory
or Higher
Writing %
Satisfactory
or Higher
Science %
Satisfactory
or Higher
Reading
Points for
Gains
Math Points
for Gains
Reading Gains
for Low 25%
Math Gains
for Low 25%
Total Points
Earned
Palm
Beach
58
61
87
54
67
69
68
66
530
Broward
58
62
85
49
67
68
66
59
514
Dade
55
57
81
47
68
68
70
66
512
Duval
53
54
82
46
64
65
66
64
494
Hillsborough
55
57
84
49
63
65
62
60
495
Orange
57
57
81
49
68
68
68
64
512
Pinellas
56
53
81
48
63
64
61
59
485
District
43
Single School Culture © and
eventually Single District
Culture © is about who we
are, what we believe, and
how we act on those beliefs.
Great districts work to
mobilize the efforts of all to
develop the WHOLE child in
each and every child.
44

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