Life in New France Seigneury, The Habitants, Old vs. New France, Early Towns, Roles of Women By: Esther, Julianna, Robyn, and Katelyn Seigneury Seigneuries- were land strips along the St. Lawrence river. Each piece of land belonged to the king of France and was maintained by the landlord, or seigneur. The seigneurial system was introduced to New France in 1627 by Cardinal Richelieu. Under this system, the lands were arranged in long narrow strips, called seigneuries, along the banks of the St. Lawrence River. Each piece of land belonged to the king of France and was maintained by the landlord, or seigneur. Seigneury The seigneurial system was introduced because the St. Lawrence River was something like the "Highway of New France". The river provided water and a means of transportation, which enabled settlers with land along the St. Lawrence to be successful. Land along the river, therefore, was much in demand. Seigneury The seigneur divided the land further among his tenants, known as censitaires or habitants, who cleared the land, built houses and other buildings, and farmed the land. The habitants paid taxes to the seigneur called cens and another inheritance tax called lods and ventes. The habitants would also divide their land for their children once they had families of their own. Seigneury Unlike the French feudalism from which it came from, the lord of the manor was not granted the jurisdiction to impose fines and penalties as in Europe. Those powers were given to the Intendant of New France, which was a commissioner sent by the King. Seigneury Seigneurs were vassals to the king, who granted them the deeds to the seigneuries. The seigneurial system differed somewhat from its counterpart in France. The seigneurs of New France were not always nobles. Seigneuries in North America were granted to military officers, some were owned by the Catholic clergy and even by unions of local inhabitants. Seigneury There were about 2572 people using the seigneual system. There were 3215 people living in new France at the time and 80% of all people farmed. It rapidly grew later on. In 1712 the population had grown to 20000 people. Seigneury They subdivided the tracts of land into lots or censives each measuring approximately 3 arpents of frontage by 30 arpents in depth (180 by 1,800 meters). Seignuery Map Seigneury Five things that the Seigneury had to do: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. - Clear the land - Build church - Grant the farm lots - Have a court to settle people’s disputes. - They had the rights to repossess land if it was not being used Habitants 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Five things the habitants had to do: Paid a rent of 2 bushels of wheat, 1 chicken, and 5$ a year They provided service for the Seigneur Cleared the trees Grounded the grain Fight in the military Habitants Young People had jobs also. They could work with their father on the farms. They were educated and could set up their own businesses or inherit/get farm land. Habitants In 1663, half of the seigneuries of New France were managed by women. This situation came to be because a woman could inherit her husband's property after his death. New France Versus Old France Old France Benefits • • • Down sides Already a country You don’t have to move (be on a boat for like ever) and sell everything to go You have everything you need around you. Many people were leaving It isn’t an adventure You don’t get a new start New France More Job opportunities Not as many people New beginning You had to move everything It was across the sea -Extremely cold -Almost starved New diseases New place you don’ know what you are getting yourself into The First Women of New France Jeanne Mance was one of the founders of Montreal in New France. She also established a hospital. Marguerite Bourgeoys initiated the construction of the Notre-Dame-deBon-Secours Chapel. She also became the first Canadian Saint. The First Women of New France Madeleine Jarret de Vercheres was the daughter of a seigneur. She is a hero of New France because she warned the Fort Vercheres of an Iroquois attack. Madame d'Youville founded a group of women called the Grey Nuns that provided homes for the poor. Women Women of New France were originally the Filles du Roi of France. They came to France to marry the men there. The women of New France were considered the household runners. They also were often put in charge of the duties of their husbands and brother's while they were away or if anything happened to them. Women These women were well educated as they were often put in charge of the children's education. They sometimes had duties with military and political decisions. Women were more knowledgeable than men about the business as the men were often on fur routes. Women had some of the same duties as men, but men were inferior. Women were better off in New France than in France. They had a chance to be educated. But they definitely didn’t have the same freedoms as today. Legal rights Women Women couldn’t sue or be sued, They easily carry on business, or dispose of own property, without the husbands permission. Women could carry on their husband’s business if he died. They were able to work in family business and be business partners. They worked alongside men in the fields. Learned skills of buying, selling, investing, and bookkeeping Some women were sent out by religious leaders to convert the native peoples. Farm Life Life on Seigneuries revolved around the harvest seasons. Farm products included: - grain - wheat - oats - corn - barley - tobacco - livestock (pigs, cattle, horses, sheep, goats, and poultry) Farm Life In their spare time, Habitants attended dinners and dances. Sons and daughters of habitants intermarried with people who lived in towns. Early Towns Towns provided irrigation, drinking water, and transportation. The towns had small industries, schools, hospitals, and other services. Merchants, traders, artisans, craftsmen, and musicians lived in the towns. Early Towns Merchants bought the habitants’ wheat and fur then traded them for a profit. The artisans were brought from France to paint religious decorations in Churches and portraits of wealthy people living in towns. People who worked Seigneuries didn’t have these traits. Some People preferred starting businesses instead of farming. Early Towns The two largest towns in New France were Quebec and Montreal Quebec was the capital and later became Quebec City. Immigration Immigration to New France peaked from 1666-1672. War in France delayed it for 80 years- colonists were forbidden to go to New France. In 1752 it picked up again. Time to play Millionaire Dun Dun Duhhhh!!