The Eucharistic Congress, 1932

Report
Leaving Certificate History
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932:
helping students to assess historical
significance
http://pdst.ie/postprimary
Helping students to assess historical
significance
• Exploring historical significance of Eucharistic
Congress, 1932
• Increasing focus on students’ ability to think critically
• The enquiry-focused approach: rationale
• Card-sorting and critical skills (Booklet, pages 63-66)
The enquiry-focused approach
Aims
• To give a clear focus to a series of lessons
• To clarify for all concerned what the learning
purposes are
• To ensure that the sequence of lessons is
leading to improved understanding on the
part of the students
Helping students to assess
historical significance: five Rs
•
•
•
•
•
Remarkable
Remembered
Resonant
Resulting in change
Revealing
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• Questions to focus on significance
• Proposed enquiry question: In what ways was
the Eucharistic Congress of 1932 historically
significant?
• Selected focus areas
Ireland and the Catholic Church in the
1920s and 1930s: a contextual overview
• Catholic identity of Free State
• Influence of Catholic Church on Cumann na nGaedheal
government
• Influence of Catholic Church on Fianna Fáil government
• Church role in health and social services, and popularity of
devotional practices
• Church response to economic depression
• Sense of identification with Catholic interests overseas
• Protestant identity in Free State
• Catholics in Northern Ireland
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932: an
overview
•
•
•
•
Purpose, timing, nature
Government involvement
Cardinal Lauri’s role
Dublin, decorated and lit; Phoenix Park
mass
• Impact of Congress
Timeline
• Preparation: retreats, triduum, Cardinal Lauri’s
arrival, Blackrock College garden party, state
banquet
• Events of the Congress, 22-26 June
• High point: Phoenix Park mass, 26 June
Glossary
• Developing students’ historical literacy
• Key terms: alderman, apostolic nuncio,
benediction, bishop, blessed sacrament,
cardinal, Catholic Emancipation, confraternity,
curia, encyclical, Eucharist, holy see, papal
legate, pontifical, rosary, sodality, triduum
Biographical notes
• Significant Church figures (Irish, international)
• Significant government figures (politicians,
civil servant, diplomat)
• Lay Director of Organisation
• Significant others (GK Chesterton, Count John
McCormack, Matt Talbot)
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
Exploring its significance
• A possible hook: Seven Ages clip
• Questions for teachers
• Task for students
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 1: The Irish Free State and the
Vatican, 1922-1932
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 2: Preparations for the Congress
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
Source 2b
The Eucharistic Congress will be held in the month of
June, 1932, and will be the occasion of the greatest
international gathering that has ever occurred in
Ireland. Few peoples of the earth will be
unrepresented when the Congress meets in Dublin.
Preparations have been taking place for the past two
years …
The Irish Times, 29 December, 1931
http://multitext.ucc.ie/d/Official_Crest_of_the_31st_International_Eucharistic_Congress_1932
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 3: The 1932 general election
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 4: The arrival of Cardinal Lauri
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
Source 4B
There were just a few things that we didn’t quite understand.
For instance, when our steamer entered the harbour of Dublin (it
was actually Dun Laoghaire harbour), we saw the Nuncio with
the Diplomatic Corps, the Bishops and an enormous crowd. We
wondered if it were possible that the Government was not
present. Then a group of men in dark coats and soft hats whom
we had taken for detectives came up to us. They were the
Ministers.
Cardinal Lauri upon his return to Rome after the Congress quoted in Bewley’s
memoirs, cited in Keogh, D. Ireland and the Vatican: The Politics and
Diplomacy of Church-State Relations 1922-1960. Cork: University Press, 1995,
p 96.
http://multitext.ucc.ie/viewgallery/1208
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
http://www.ucd.ie/news/dec05/devalera_slideshow/devalera_slideshow_22.htm
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 5: Receptions for the Cardinal
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
Secondary Source 2
When the Papal Legate arrived there was great applause.
From a balcony overlooking the grounds he surveyed the
scene in glorious sunshine. Raising his hand to bestow a
blessing on the crowd it appeared that virtually everyone
in the vast gathering knelt to receive his blessing. A
pause followed, which was eventually broken by one
person in the crowd who began to sing ‘Faith of our
Fathers.’ In a remarkably spontaneous gesture the entire
crowd began to sing the hymn in unison.
O’Dwyer, R. The Eucharistic Congress, Dublin 1932: An Illustrated History. Dublin:
Nonsuch, 2009, pp.64,65
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 6: Dublin – City of Lights
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• Irish Times photographic slideshow on the
Congress
http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/gallery/2012/
06/05/eucharistic-congress-dublin-1932/
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 7: Mass meetings for men and
women and the Children’s Mass
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
Source 7C
Although my expectations on coming here were very
high, and I had prepared myself to witness something
that was extraordinary, I am obliged to say that in all
truth what has occurred is far beyond anything that I
could have perceived as possible. I have been inspired
and edified to an extent which is beyond the power of
words to describe, and I know that God in His goodness
will bless you all most abundantly for this wonderful
tribute of love and of fidelity which you have given.
Extract from address by Cardinal Lauri at mass meeting for men, 23 June, Phoenix Park,
cited in O’Dwyer, R. The Eucharistic Congress, Dublin 1932: An Illustrated History. Dublin:
Nonsuch, 2009, p.83.
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 8: The role of Count John
McCormack
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
Secondary Source 3
Standing at the high altar, McCormack, resplendent in
his papal uniform, had the biggest live audience of his
career.
From Ledbetter, Gordon, The Great Irish Tenor: John McCormack, Dublin:
Townhouse, 2003, p.219.
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 9: High Mass in Phoenix Park
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
Source 9B
Flung together in their hundreds of thousands, like the
sands on the seashore, these people were merely parts
of a great organism which was performing a
tremendous act of faith, with no more ego in them
than the sands themselves.
The Irish Times, 27 June 1932
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 10: Protestant perspectives on a
Catholic event
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• The enquiry: In what ways was the Eucharistic
Congress of 1932 historically significant?
• Focus area 11: The Congress ends
http://www.irishtimes.com/blogs/gallery/2012/06/05/eucharistic-congress-dublin-1932/
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• Card sorting and critical skills
• Rationale
• Potential for literacy development
Group activity
Critical skills exercise
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• Post-Congress reflections
o What do any of these sources add to our
understanding of the significance of the
Congress?
o What differing perspectives on the Catholic
Church in 1932 are expressed by the two
historians in Secondary Source 4 and Secondary
Source 5?
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• Historians’ views (Secondary sources A-D)
• Interrogating the historians (p.70)
In what ways was the Eucharistic Congress
of 1932 historically significant?
Your conclusions on the enquiry
Booklet p.70
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
• For a good selection of images relating to the
Congress, see the gallery of images on the
Multitext website:
http://multitext.ucc.ie/viewgallery/1208
The Eucharistic Congress, 1932
The following short film currently available on
YouTube was produced by students of the MA in
the History of the Media, School of History and
Archives, UCD:
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dKR7olqpL80
http://pdst.ie/postprimary

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