Geology Part 1 2014 Teacher

Rock, Rock On
Part 1 Age of Earth and scientific
Part 2 Plate tectonics
How old is the Earth?
• The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old. Suppose that you decided to
count to 4.6 billion and that you counted 1 number every second.
• How long would it take you to count the following numbers of
5,500 years (since construction of the pyramids at
1.5 hours
700,000 years (since the earliest appearance of archaic Homo
8 days
sapiens) _____________
66,000,000 years (since the extinction of the
2 years
dinosaurs) _____________
545,000,000 years (since the first abundant evidence of animals with
17 years
hard parts) _____________
146 years!!!!
4,600,000,000 years (since the birth of the Earth) _____________
How old is human history?
Which of the following best represents the fraction
of Earth history that is represented by the
presence of modern humans (about 10,000 years)?
• two-thirds (0.667) of Earth history
• two-hundredths (0.02) of Earth history
• two-thousandths (0.002) of Earth history
• two millionths (0.000002) of Earth history
How the Earth was formed
• The earth is composed of matter leftover from
• Our planet was very hot when first formed and
has since cooled down.
How scientists measure the age of
the Earth
• Scientists use a variety of ways to measure the
age of the earth.
• Radiometric dating, principle of superposition,
and the fossil record all are used to estimate
the age of the earth.
• Aspects from
Chemistry, Biology, Physics, and Geology
are all used in these methods.
Radiometric Dating
• Scientists measure the amount of certain
exist in a sample to
estimate the age of the sample.
Carbon Dating
• ________________is
a method of looking at
how much carbon-14 is in a sample.
• Many radiometric dating methods exist,
including potassium-argon dating and
uranium-lead dating.
Same number of __________,
different numbers of ___________.
Carbon Dating
Using this chart, how old would
you expect a clay pot to be that
contains 25% C-14 that was
originally in the sample?
How does human history compare to the length of
Earth’s history.
What is an isotope?
Unit 1-Spheres
of the Earth
How does radiometric dating work?
Principle of Superposition
• The principle of superposition states
“a series of stratified sedimentary rocks the
lowest stratum is the ___________”
• Scientists can estimate the age of rocks by
looking at the rocks above and below.
Principle of Superposition
The Fossil Record
• Use of fossils allows us to say that two bits of
rock are the same age, or which one is older,
how many years old
but fossils can't tell us ___________________
a rock is.
• Fossils used in this method need to be
abundant and located only in a narrow time
The Fossil Record
How can the law of superposition help tell the age of
How can fossils help us tell the age of rocks?
Unit 1-Spheres
of the Earth
• What is wrong with this picture?
• Dinosaur in Latin means “___________”
Tyrant lizard
• Dinosaurs lived from the Triassic period
230 million years ago until the Cretaceous
period 66 million years ago.
• A large ________________________led
global extinction event
to the end of the dinosaurs.
• Most theories believe either the dinosaurs
went extinct or evolved into birds or other
Dinosaurs with Feathers?
• Jurassic Park the movie may be entertaining but science has
progressed since that movie.
• Velociraptors are not as tall as in the movie (but Utahraptors
• Velociraptors were found to have “quill knobs” on their bones
leading scientists to believe they had feathers.
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• From
• 10) Parasaurolophus
• A plant-eating member of the hadrosaur family, also known
as the duck-billed dinosaurs, Parasaurolophus' main feature
was its curved head crest. Parasaurolophus wasn't especially
big, not necessarily a speed demon and lacked anything in
the sharp teeth, long claws, and spiky tail departments. But
when you have an auditory cortex capable of picking up on
advancing predators from miles away and communicating
the impending danger to the rest of your herd, none of those
things really matter.
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 9) Sinornithosaurus
• Sinornithosaurus, whose name means "Chinese bird lizard," was a
small, turkey-sized member of the raptor family. This dinosaur's
claim to fame came in late 2009 when researchers discovered the
feathered carnivore may have been venomous.
• Similar to other venomous animals like snakes, Sinornithosaurus
appears to have had long fang-like teeth with a thin groove running
from the root to the tip, indicating a venom pathway. The
researchers also found what looks like a groove extending along the
animal's jaw to a small hollow chamber that could have housed the
venom gland, as well as small pits at the tops of the teeth for
delivering the venom. The back teeth of Sinornithosaurus were
shorter and broader for chewing.
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 8) Ankylosaurus
• Stretching 35 feet long (10.7 meters) and weighing
between three and four tons, Ankylosaurus met few
rivals when it roamed the Earth during the Late
Cretaceous period [source: Wilson]. With a back and
sides covered with steel-like plates, horns behind its
eyes, eyelids made of bone and bone plates attached to
the outside of its skull and jaws, this plant-eating
dinosaur was almost entirely covered in armor. As if the
seemingly impenetrable shield weren't enough,
Ankylosaurus was also equipped with a massive tail
capable of delivering blows with 43,000 pounds of
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 7) Oryctodromeus Cubicularis
• How does a dinosaur weighing barely 70 pounds (32 kilograms)
survive in a landscape dominated by towering beasts 10 times its
size? In the case of Oryctodromeus cubicularis, a small plant-eating
dinosaur that lived during the early Cretaceous period, it disappears.
• By digging small burrows and hiding out underground, this dinosaur
managed not only to escape predators, but probably harsh weather as
well. Based on remains found in both Australia and Montana,
Oryctodromeus, whose name means "digging runner of the lair,"
was a well-designed digging machine. The dinosaur had a snout that
could have been used as a shovel, strong shoulder muscles and
sturdy hip bones for bracing against the ground. If all else failed,
Oryctodromeus also had long hind legs for running
[source: Boswell].
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 6) Spinosaurus
• Tyrannosaurus Rex often steals the show as the most fearsome predator in
dinosaur movies, but it's the Spinosaurus that holds the record as the
world's largest carnivorous beast. Weighing in at a full 9.9 tons,
Spinosaurus, which means "spine lizard" in Greek, got its name from the
distinctive sail on its back composed of long spines covered in skin. This
imposing sail, which may have served as a built in thermostat, mate magnet
or simply for intimidation, rose a full 6 feet (2 meters) tall when
Spinosaurus arched its back [source: Viegas].
• Another distinctive characteristic of this dominant Cretaceous Period
predator was its 6 foot (2 meter) long head -- the longest of the meat eaters
-- and narrow snout full of knife-like teeth. While most other carnivorous
dinosaurs possessed curved teeth, the teeth of Spinosaurus were straight,
probably to spear slippery prey like fish [source: Viegas]. Based on
similarities between this prehistoric dinosaur and today's crocodiles,
scientists also think Spinosaurus likely grabbed its prey and proceeded to
thrash its head back and forth to kill it [source: Discovery Channel.]
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 5. Sauroposeidon
• While predators such as Spinosaurus are often viewed as having the
toughest job, finding, eating and digesting enough plant matter to
fuel a 60-ton body is no simple task. At 60 feet (18 meters) tall and
100 feet (30 meters) long, Sauroposeidon, a member of the planteating sauropod family, was the tallest land animal to ever exist
[source: Discovery Channel]. Its neck alone was 35 feet (11 m) long,
with neck bones the size of fourth graders [source: BBC].
• Sauroposeidon's hefty girth meant it had to consume up to a ton of
vegetable matter daily, practically a never-ending job. To
accomplish this feat, the dinosaur bore 52 chisel-like teeth that it
used to strip plants of their leaves, in one fell swoop. It didn't even
bother with chewing; it gulped the tasty vegetation straight down to
a 1-ton stomach the size of a swimming pool. Then it let its superstrength stomach acid -- capable of dissolving iron -- do all the work
[source: Discovery Channel].
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 4) Deinonychus
• A bird-like dinosaur measuring approximately 5 feet tall (1.5
meters), 10 feet long (3 meters) and 200 pounds (91 kilograms),
Deinonychus more than made up for its small size with its
speed, intelligence and an impressive arsenal of weaponry
[source: Discovery Channel].
• Both its hands and feet were equipped with razor sharp claws,
including a long curved claw 5 inches (13 centimeters) long on the
second toe of each hind foot [source: Col]. This claw, which
Deinonychus held erect while walking, was likely used to grasp onto
prey with a death grip while it proceeded to use its 60-plus serrated
teeth to tear the unfortunate victim to shreds [source:NewScientist].
Deinonychus may also have used its strong tail to balance on one
foot while it kicked out at foes karate style with its killer claw.
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 3) Triceratops
• If any dinosaur could stand up to the wrath of dinosaurs like
Deinonychus, it was this guy. The largest and heaviest of the horned
dinosaurs, Triceratops was one of the most dangerous animals to
have evolved on land [source: Discovery Channel]. This is one
dinosaur that played both offense and defense equally well.
• Characterized by a short nose horn and two longer horns up to 3 feet
(1 meter) long over the eyes, Triceratops's offensive weapons were
made of keratin, an antler-like material that could have easily gored
even the most formidable foes. On the defensive end, Triceratops
wore a 6.5 foot (2 meter) wide neck frill that was six times thicker
than a human skull [source: Discovery Channel]. Besides being a
nearly impenetrable form of protection, this several-layers-thick
shield may also have been used to regulate body temperature or
attract mates.
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 2. Tyrannosaurus Rex
• Easily the world's most famous dinosaur, Tyrannosaurus
Rex was the dominant predator for 25 million years. With
finely tuned senses, a bite force 16 times as strong as an
alligator's and seven tons of pure muscle, this is one
dinosaur that definitely lives up to its name, which
translates as "tyrant lizard king." [source: Discovery
• One of Tyrannosaurus's most imposing features was its
head. The size of a grown man, its head was 2/3 muscle and
along with its neck, weighed a full 1,000 pounds (454
kilograms) [source: Discovery Channel]. This bone
cruncher's jaws, stocked with more than 50 teeth up to a
foot long, were strong enough to crush a car [source: BBC]
Top Ten Dinosaurs
Top Ten Dinosaurs
• 1) Archaeopteryx
• It's a bird! It's a dinosaur! It's ... Archaeopteryx!
• A transitional link between birds and reptiles, this particular animal has
perhaps stirred up more controversy than any other. So much so, in fact,
that there's no real consensus on how to categorize it.
• Although its remains, first discovered in 1861, had feathers similar to those
of modern birds, they also bore a striking resemblance to those of small
meat-eating dinosaurs. As a result, Archaeopteryx has been placed in a sort
of categorical no-man's land: It's both primitive bird and feathered dinosaur.
• On the bird side, the crow-sized Archaeopteryx with a 2-foot (.6-meter)
wingspan had feathers, wings, a furcula (or wishbone) and smaller fingers.
On the dinosaur side, it had teeth, a flat breastbone, a bony tail and claws.
It's uncertain whether this curious creature used its feathers for flight,
temperature regulation or a little bit of both, but if they did fly, the flat
breastbone indicates they probably didn't do it for long periods
[source: Natural History, UCMP].
Top Ten Dinosaurs
How do scientists study dinosaurs?
currently alive
• Scientists compare fossils to _____________
animal species.
• Scientists look to see what is fossilized close
to the dinosaurs.
• Fossilized footprints can give clues to how fast
dinosaurs were.
How do scientists know about dinosaurs?
What is one way dinosaurs are adapted to live in their
Unit 1-Spheres
of the Earth
How do scientists study rocks?
• Mineralogists study minerals.
• Petrologists study rocks.
• Structural geologists study how plate
tectonics moves and squishes rocks.
• Paleontologists study Earth history and fossils.
• Stratigraphers study how layers of sedimentary
rock form though geologic time.
• Geomorphologists study how the land surface is
shaped by water.
Scientific Classification
• Minerals are substances made up of one ionic
compound with unique properties
• Rocks are substances composed of two or
more minerals.
• Scientists identify rocks and minerals based on
physical properties
• Properties include: Color, Hardness, Cleavage
or Fracture, Crystalline Structure, Magnetism,
Luster, and Density
Atomic Theory
• All minerals (and all matter really) is made up
of ________.
• Atoms are made of
protons, neutrons, and electrons
Atomic Theory
• Atoms form
bonds to become
more stable.
• Covalent bonds
occur when atoms
share electrons
• Ionic bonds occur
when atoms
transfer electrons
Atomic Theory
• Compounds form crystals depending on how
the atoms stack on top of each other.
• The physical properties that we see in minerals
are related to the atomic composition.
• Naturally occurring, inorganic solid w/an orderly
crystalline structure & a definite chemical
• Must contain following characteristics
• 1. Naturally occurring
• 2. Solid substance
• 3. Orderly crystalline structure
• 4. Definite chemical composition
• 5. Generally inorganic (except: calcite)
– Most silicates also contain 1 or more elements other than
Si & O
– EX: quartz, olivine, augite, mica, feldspar, clay minerals
– Contain C, O & one or more elements, mainly
– EX: calcite (most common) & dolomite
– Contain O & 1 or more other elements, mainly
– EX: rutile, corundum, hematite
Rock Classification
• The three classification of rocks are igneous,
sedimentary, and metamorphic.
• When rocks come out of a volcano they are
classified as igneous.
• As rocks are weathered and broken down into
tiny pieces (called sediment), those pieces
pressed together make sedimentary rocks.
• Rocks under heat and time become
metamorphic rocks.
Rock Classification
Igneous Rocks
What are They?
• Fire Rocks
• Formed underground by trapped, cooled
• Formed above ground when volcanoes erupt
and magma cools
Types of Igneous Rocks
Sedimentary Rocks
How They are Made
Wind and water break down the earth
Bits of earth settle in lakes and rivers
Layers are formed and build up
Pressure and time turn the layers to rock
Types of Sedimentary Rocks
Metamorphic Rocks
What are They?
• Rocks that have changed
• They were once igneous or sedimentary
• Pressure and heat changed the rocks
Types of Metamorphic Rocks
What is the difference between rocks and minerals?
What are the three classifications of rocks and how are
they formed?
Unit 1-Spheres
of the Earth
Composition of the Earth
• Most of the Earth is composed of liquid
magma and an _________core.
• The outer layer, the crust, is the solid part of
the earth.
Composition of the Earth’s Crust
How water moves in the water cycle
• Precipitation that reaches Earth’s surface often flows
over the land.
surface runoff
• This water, called ____________________,
reaches lakes, rivers, and oceans. Surface runoff
dissolves and collects minerals and nutrient-rich soil as
it flows.
How water moves in the water cycle
• Groundwater can be an collected in underground areas
of sediment and rocks called an _______________.
• When groundwater is removed from an aquifer for
human consumption, it can take 300 to 1,000 years or
more to replenish the supply.
How water moves in the water cycle
• ________________is
process of liquid moving
through a substance that
has many tiny holes or
• Groundwater can move
through soil because the
soil is porous.
How water moves in the water cycle
• Groundwater that is not
pumped from an aquifer
flows to oceans.
• Aquifers are important water
• Aquifers are in danger of
becoming depleted because
the water is being used faster
than it can be ___________.
Is the Earth solid all the way through? What are the
parts of the Earth?
How does water move through the earth?
Unit 1-Spheres
of the Earth

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