Overview of Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports

Report
Overview
of
Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports
Idaho SWPBIS Training Institute
Objectives
• Describe the rationale behind a
schoolwide approach to behavior
support
• Outline the general and generic
organization of the application of
tiered behavioral supports
• Outline the organization and
direction of this year’s Tier 1 training
Tier One
Getting Started
• Overview, Schoolwide, Non-classroom, Data Decisions,
Team Meetings, Team Planning
Expanding Implementation
• Classroom, Escalation Cycle, Team Status Check, Team
Planning
Sustaining Efforts
• Individual Student, Secondary-group, Team Planning, Longterm Action Planning
Acknowledgements
• Students, educators, administrators, school staff,
families
• Community of researchers, system changers, staff
developers
• Institute of Education Sciences (IES), Offices of
Special Education Programs (OSEP), U.S.
Department of Education
• State Department of Education (SDE), Center for
School Improvement & Policy Studies (CSI&PS),
Special Education Statewide Technical Assistance
(SESTA), Project Schools, Northwest PBIS
(NWPBIS)
Purpose:
Examine the features of a proactive
systemic approach to preventing and
responding to schoolwide discipline
problems
Generic Model
• Schoolwide PBIS Team
•
•
Represents school, meets regularly
Writes plan, trains school employees
• Coach
•
•
•
Facilitates meetings
Provides technical assistance to school
Links school to state
• State Leadership Team
•
•
•
Guides planning and development
Coordinates training
Comprises school teams/structure
SWPBIS Coaches
• Establish a network of highly skilled personnel
who have:
•Fluency with PBIS systems and practices
•Capacity to deliver technical support
•Capacity to sustain team efforts
• Follow-up training throughout the year
includes:
•Specialized topics
•Communication and problem-solving
Roles & Responsibilities
• Please define the roles and
responsibilities of:
•administrator
•coach
•team
Positive School Climate
•
•
•
•
Maximizes academic engagement and achievement
Minimizes rates of rule violating behavior
Encourages acts of respectful and responsible behavior
Organizes school functions to be more efficient, effective,
and relevant
• Improves supports for students with disabilities and
those placed at risk of educational failure
The
Learning Environment
Positive Environment Leads to…
Negative Environment Leads to…
Endorphins in bloodstream, which
• Generate feeling of euphoria
• Raise pain threshold
• Stimulate the frontal lobe so that
the situation and learning objective
are remembered
Cortisol in bloodstream, which
• Raises anxiety level
• Shuts down processing of lowpriority information (for example,
the lesson objective)
• Focuses frontal lobe on the cause of
the stress so that the situation is
remembered, but not the learning
objective
Sousa & Tomlinson, 2011
Which comes first???
 Academic problems often precede behavior problems
 Behavior problems often precede academic problems
11
Creating a Positive
Learning Environment
Behavior and academic achievement are inextricably
linked. A student’s academic success in school is directly
related to the student’s attention, engagement, and
behavior. The higher the expectation for scholarly
behaviors and the better the supports for students
experiencing difficulties, whether mild, moderate, or severe
– the more academic success can be achieved.
(Buffman, Mattos, Weber, 2008)
Creating Positive
Learning Environments
Discuss the following questions
1. Does everyone in our school agree on why we are here?
2. Does everyone really believe we can make a difference for all kids?
3. In terms of making a difference, do we have a common schoolwide vision?
4. Are clear and specific schoolwide systems in place to make our vision a reality?
5. Are classroom plans in place that match the schoolwide systems?
6. Are individual student support options in place?
7. Do procedures in the office support the school, classroom, and individual plans?
8. Does every adult talk about these plans openly, regularly, and systematically?
9. Do we know, with measurable evidence, that the plans are making a difference?
10. If our plans are not making a difference, are we willing to try something new?
Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Intensive, Individual Interventions
Individual Students
Assessment-based
High Intensity
1-5%
Targeted Group Interventions
Some students (at-risk)
High efficiency
Rapid response
Universal Interventions
All students
Preventive, proactive
5-10%
80-90%
1-5%
Intensive, Individual Interventions
Individual Students
Assessment-based
Intense, durable procedures
5-10%
Targeted Group Interventions
Some students (at-risk)
High efficiency
Rapid response
80-90%
Universal Interventions
All settings, all students
Preventive, proactive
Level of Intensity of Response =
Level of Intensity of Behavior
At the top of the pyramid, this is individualized
work. The good news is that if we have developed
a solid, positive foundation with the base of the
pyramid, we will have more energy and resources
to work with this small, challenging group of
individuals.
(Hierck, Coleman, Weber, p. 47, 2011)
Response to Intervention
Overview
• Emphasis will be placed on the processes,
systems, and organizational structures that are
needed to enable the accurate adoption, fluent
use, and sustained application of these practices.
• Emphasis will be placed on the importance of
data-based decision-making, evidence-based
practices, and on-going staff development and
support.
Model of Continuous Improvement
Plan
Act
Do
Check
Article Jigsaw Activity
Got it. I know, understand, and/or agree
with this.
This is really important or interesting.
I don’t understand this, or this does not
make sense to me.
Reduced number of ODRs
means:
• Returned instructional time
• Improved academic outcomes
• Reduced number of students receiving
highest level of service
T o ta l O ffi c e D i s c i p l i n e R e fe r r a l s
Example:
Kennedy Middle School
1500
1200
900
600
300
0
95-96
96-97
97-98
School Years
98-99
21
What does a reduction of 850 ODRs
and 25 suspensions mean?
Savings in Administrative Time
•ODR = 15 minutes per event
•Suspension = 45 minutes per
event
•13,875 minutes
•231 hours
•29, 8-hour days
Savings in Student Instructional
Time
•ODR = 45 minutes per event
•Suspension = 216 minutes per
event
•43,650 minutes
•728 hours
•121, 6-hour school days
Idaho Elementary School
Cost Benefit Worksheet
Student Time
Regained:
6840 minutes
114 hours
14 days
Administrator Time
Regained:
2280 minutes
38 hours
5 days
23
Ineffective Responses to
Problem Behavior
•“GET TOUGH!” (practices)
•“Train and Hope” (systems)
“GET TOUGH!”
•Clamp down and increase monitoring
•Re-re-review rules
•Extend continuum and consistency of
consequences
•Establish “bottom line”
“GET TOUGH!”
Negative Side Effects:
• Fosters environments of control.
• Triggers and reinforces antisocial behavior.
• Shifts accountability away from school.
• Devalues child-adult relationship.
• Weakens relationships between academic and
social behavior programming.
Brainstorm your
“GET TOUGH” practices.
Reactive Responses are
Predictable
When we experience aversive situations, we select
interventions that produce immediate relief and:
•
•
•
•
Remove students
Remove ourselves
Modify physical environments
Assign responsibility for change to students and/or
others
When behavior doesn’t
improve, we “Get Tougher!”
•Zero tolerance policies
•Increased surveillance
•Increased suspension and expulsion
•In-service training by expert
•Alternative programming
A predictable, systemic
response, but…
based on the erroneous
assumption that students:
•Are inherently “bad”
•Will learn more appropriate behavior
through increased use of “aversives”
•Will be better tomorrow
Science of behavior has
taught us that students:
•Are NOT born with “bad behaviors”
•Do NOT learn when presented contingent aversive
consequences
DO learn better ways of behaving by
being taught directly and receiving
positive feedback
Consequence is NOT synonymous
with punishment
Discipline
• Is student focused
• Shows students what they have
done wrong
• Clarifies ownership of the problem
• Facilitates problem solving
• Seeks resolution and leaves dignity
intact
Punishment
•
•
•
•
•
Is adult oriented
Requires judgment
Imposes power
Arouses anger and resentment
Invites more conflict
(Hierch, Coleman, & Weber, 2011)
“Train and Hope”
Approach
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
React to identified problem
Select and add practice
Hire expert to train practice
Expect and hope for implementation
Wait for new problem
Positive Behavior Support
PBS is a broad range of systemic and
individualized strategies for achieving important
social and learning outcomes while preventing
problem behavior with all students.
“EBS” = “PBS” = “PBIS”
What Does PBIS Look Like?
Tier 1
• >80% of students can tell you what is expected of them and give
behavioral example because they have been taught, actively
supervised, practiced, and acknowledged
• Positive adult-to-student interactions exceed behavior
• Function-based behavior support is foundation for addressing
problem behavior
• Data and team-based action planning and implementation are
operating
• Administrators are active participants
• Full continuum of behavior support is available to all students
What Does PBIS Look Like?
Tier 2 & 3
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Team-based coordination and problem-solving occurs
Local specialized behavioral capacity is built
Function-based behavior support planning occurs
Person-centered, contextually, and culturally relevant
supports are provided
District/regional behavioral capacity is built
Supports are instructionally oriented
SWPBIS practices and systems are linked
School-based comprehensive supports are implemented
PBIS is NOT:
•A specific practice or curriculum, but rather a
general framework to preventing problem
behavior.
•Limited to any particular group of students, but
rather for all students.
•New, but rather is based on a long history of
behavioral practices and effective instructional
design strategies.
What is PBIS?
What is SWPBIS?
A systems approach for establishing the
social culture and behavioral supports
needed for school to be effective learning
environments for all students.
Evidence-based features of
SWPBIS:
•
•
•
•
Prevention
Define and teach positive social expectations.
Acknowledge positive behavior
Arrange consistent consequences for problem
behavior
• On-going collection and use of data for decision
making
• Continuum of intensive, individual interventions
supports
• Implementation of the systems that support
effective practices
The Impact of SWPBIS:
Reductions:
Students:
•Office referrals
•Suspensions and
expulsions
•Referrals to Special
Education
Faculty and Staff:
•Faculty absenteeism
Improvements:
Students:
•Student engagement
•Academic performance
•Family involvement
Faculty and Staff:
•Consistency across faculty
•Classroom management
•Faculty retention
•Substitute performance/perception
•Ratings of faculty “effectiveness
SWPBIS as Prescribed
• SWPBIS team drives implementation of practices
• Team uses student and staff input to inform the
development of high efficiency systems of
support for evidence-based practices
• Team collects and analyzes data
• Team meets monthly to move process forward
SWPBIS as Prescribed
•Monthly meetings (while developing first tier)
•Program development
•Impact and implementation
•After first tier of support is established:
•Development of advanced tier interventions
•Identification of non-responders
•Monitor student progress and advanced tier implementation
The challenge is increasing
schools’ capacity to:
• Respond effectively, efficiently, and relevantly to
a range of problem behaviors observed in
schools
• Adopt, fit, integrate, and sustain research-based
behavior practices
• Give priority to an unified prevention agenda
• Engage in team-based problem-solving
Classroom
Non-classroom
Adapted from Horner (2009) Cal. State Fullerton, 2009
Individual
Student
46
Schoolwide and Classroom-wide
Systems
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
Identify a common purpose and approach to discipline
Define a clear set of positive expectations and behaviors
Implement procedures for teaching expected behavior
Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for
encouraging expected behavior
Differentiate supports from a continuum of procedures for
discouraging inappropriate behavior
Implement procedures for on-going monitoring and
evaluation
Effective Classroom Management
Systems
• Teach and encourage classroom-wide positive
expectations
• Teach and encourage classroom routines and cues
• Use a ratio of 5 positives to 1 negative adult-student
interaction
• Supervise actively
• Redirect the minor, infrequent behavior errors
• Precorrect chronic errors frequently
• Increase student engagement through active
participation strategies
Specific Setting Systems
• Teach and encourage positive expectations
and routines
• Supervise actively
o All staff: scan, move, interact
• Precorrect
• Provide positive reinforcement
Individual Student Systems
• Support behavioral competence at school and district
levels
• Tailor function-based behavior support planning
• Use team and data-based decision making
• Utilize comprehensive person-centered planning and
wraparound processes
• Deliver secondary social skills and self-management
instruction
• Implement individualized instructional and curricular
accommodations
Local Context
and Culture
Science of
Human
Behavior
Systems
Change and
Durability
Prevention
Logic for
All
PBIS Features
Natural
Implementers
EvidenceBased
Practices
Prevention is…
• Decreasing development of new problem behaviors
• Preventing increased severity of existing problem
behaviors
• Eliminating triggers and maintenance of problem
behaviors
• Teaching, monitoring, and acknowledging prosocial
behavior
• Using a 3-tiered prevention logic that defines a
continuum of support
• Designing schoolwide systems for student success
Prevention Logic for All
Walker et al., 1996
Redesign
learning &
Decrease
Prevent
Teach,
teaching
development worsening of environments monitor, &
to eliminate acknowledge
of new
existing
problem
problem
pro-social
triggers &
behaviors
behaviors
behavior
maintainers
of problem
behaviors
53
Idaho’s Tiered Instructional and Positive Behavioral
Interventions and Support (PBIS) Framework
Academic Systems
Behavioral Systems
Intensive, Individual Interventions
Individual Students
Assessment-based
High Intensity
1-5%
Targeted Group Interventions
Some students (at-risk)
High efficiency
Rapid response
Universal Interventions
All students
Preventive, proactive
5-10%
80-90%
1-5%
Intensive, Individual Interventions
Individual Students
Assessment-based
Intense, durable procedures
5-10%
Targeted Group Interventions
Some students (at-risk)
High efficiency
Rapid response
80-90%
Universal Interventions
All settings, all students
Preventive, proactive
Audit of Current Practices
TIER 3
List Individualized/Intensive practices
provided to a few students for support
TIER 2
List Strategic/Targeted practices provided to
some students for support
TIER 1
List Core practices provided to all students and
intended to support most
Active Administrative Participation
• Actively participate as a member of the
leadership team
• Establishes PBIS initiative as one of the top three
improvement plan priorities
• Commits to and invests in a 2-3 year
implementation effort
Emphasizes Data-based Evaluation
•Conduct self-assessment and action planning
•Evaluate self-improvement continuously
•Identify strengths and needs
•Plan and implement strategic dissemination
Implementation Challenges
• Multiple, overlapping, and competing initiatives
• Overemphasis on conceptualization, structure, and
process
• Under-emphasis on data-based decision making
• Failure to build competence for accurate and sustained
implementation
• Reluctance to eliminate practices and systems that are
not effective, efficient, and relevant
• Low rates of regular positive acknowledgements and
celebrations
Brainstorm potential challenges and suggest
effective strategies.
Challenges
Suggested Strategy
At the end of this year you should
feel like…
1. There is room for improvement but we have the basics
in place and have a basis for identifying nonresponders.
2. We are teaching desired behaviors to all student in all
settings.
3. For the most part, our teachers support implementation
(80%).
4. Our system for supporting the behavior of students is
sustainable.

similar documents