Chapter 22 Notes After the Mongols, no single power controlled Central Asia, and no unified economic policy protected and promoted trade. Also, the sea trade replaced the old overland trade route through Central Asia. Land-based empires of Eurasia (Ottoman, Russian, Mughal, and Ming) were at a disadvantage in the competition with seabased empires of Europe. Society Often preceded traders, explorers, & conquerors Francis Xavier, Matteo Ricci Most prominent transmitter of European science and technology to China and of Chinese philosophy and literature to Europe East of Jesus (Jesuits) India Companies Dutch East India Company(VOC) secured favor in China and Japan East India Company of England was VOC’s biggest rival These groups became conduits of trade and knowledge between Asia and Europe. After end of Mongol power in Russia, power moved from Kiev to Moscow. Muscovy prince Ivan IV (the Terrible) took title tsar in 1547 and extended Russia’s borders to east and north. “Time of Troubles” included internal struggles as well as external wars. Mikhail Romanov started a new dynasty which lasted until 1917. Romanovs saw the east as their only option for expansion. Surrounding Russia to the north, east, and parts of south were Turkic people. Russian and Turkic peoples cooperated but were suspicious of one another. Hostility increased when Ottomans emerged as a great power in the region. Cossacks demonstrate a way Russia combined elements considered “Turk” with those considered “Russian.” Military skills of Asian horsemen Russian-speakers, Christians, helped build Russian empire Ottoman Wanted warm-water port on Black Sea Liberate Istanbul Protector of Orthodox Christians in Balkans Failed – but idea remained Great War Northern War Broke Swedish control of Baltic Sea Established direct contacts between Russia and Europe St. Petersburg Built on land taken from Sweden, became Russia’s capital Built in style of Western Europe – Russia’s “window to the west” Nobles forced to wear western clothes and shave, ended seclusion of upper-class women Autocracy Peter wanted to break power of boyars. Brought Russian Orthodox Church under state control Increased burdens of taxes and forced labor on the serfs Ivan IV began Russian exploration of Siberia Furs & timber first valuable resources After 1700 gold, coal, & iron became important. From early 1600s used as a penal colony Rivalry Treaties finally set official borders Allowed Russia to expand to the Pacific North with Qing China America Added Alaska Russian traders active along entire western coast of North America Ming manufacturers had transformed the global economy with their techniques for the assembly-line production of porcelain. Europeans loved the blue-on-white porcelain and traders requested special European designs. This market for porcelain and other Chinese goods stimulated the commercial development of East Asia, the Indian Ocean, and Europe. Natural disasters Climate change Agricultural distress Uprisings Inflation (Despite influx of silver, the Ming government maintained a strict ratio in price between silver and copper coins.) Porcelain factories plagued by disorder and inefficiency Slow introduction of foods from Americas and Africa Under pressure from powerful Mongol federations of Central Asia Mongols had unified under Tibetan Buddhism. Khan designated a dalai lama, or universal teacher to legitimize his rule. Japanese warriors invaded Korea (a Chinese tributary state) Manchus contributed troops (at a high cost for impoverished Ming) to help stop invasion Korea’s “turtle boats” stopped the invasion but both Korea and Ming were weakened. Rebellious forces captured Beijing. Imperial family fled city. Ming general invited Manchus to take Beijing from rebels. Qing did this but kept power rather than restoring Ming. Ming imperial family appealed to Pope for help. Dead before Pope’s response arrived. The Qing Empire was ruled by a Manchu imperial family and Manchus were the leaders of the military forces. While it was a diverse empire, the overwhelming majority of officials, soldiers, merchants, and farmers were Chinese. Spread into south China and Central Asia. Fostered economic and demographic recovery. Foreign trade was encouraged. Became emperor as a child (1662). In 1669, at 16, he gained control over the government by executing his chief regent. Intellectual prodigy Successful military commander Personally led troops in bringing Mongolia under Qing control. Battled with and then made peace with Russian Empire Died in 1722, reign marked by expansion and stability in the empire Part of the effectiveness of the Kangxi era was due to Qing willingness to incorporate ideas/technologies from other regions. Mongol system of political organization Korean and Chinese agricultural practices Jesuit influence Maps in European style Considered European calendar but faced strong opposition Medical expertise Anatomical & pharmaceutical knowledge Mathematics, astronomy, European civilization To gain converts among Chinese elite, Jesuits made compromises in their religious teaching. Most important was toleration of Confucian ancestor worship Caused conflict with Catholic rivals in China and Pope Chinese Jesuits knowledge brought to Europe by Early form of inoculation that eventually inspired vaccines Porcelain factories Success of Qing caused admiration in Europe. Demand for Chinese goods Silk, porcelain, tea Wallpaper Chinese produce items especially for Europe Admiration for Chinese philosophy Voltaire proclaimed Qing emperors model philosopher-kings and advocated such rulership Desire for communications with China Qing were eager to expand China’s economic influence but were determined to control trade very strictly. Allowed imperial family to enjoy benefits of taxation Limited piracy and smuggling To regulate trade, Qing allowed only one market point for each trading sector. This system worked well for European traders until the late 1700s. British had become a important presence in East Asia. Tea from China became enormously popular in Britain. English traders felt the Qing system hindered their opportunities to make money from the millions of potential Chinese consumers. British government was concerned about the massive trade deficit with China. Sent George Macartney to open diplomatic relations with China and revise the trade system. Maccartney mission was a complete fiasco! Chinese would not allow Maccartney to travel to Beijing. Maccartney refused to perform the kowtow, and Chinese officials refused to bow to a portrait of the king of England. The basic issues were unresolvable. Dutch, French, & Russian officials also failed to achieve changes in trade. European attitudes toward China began to shift. Massive population growth due to new crops and Qing peace. Qing had outgrown government. Same number of officials as Ming with twice the land and four times the population Couldn’t keep up with repairs and environmental issues Led to misery in many parts of interior China Qing fell victim to basic problems of landbased empires. Conquered huge stretch of territory to defend itself against Russia Costs of maintaining territory was enormous. Japan’s centralized political system had broken down in the 12th century, when the first of the decentralized military governments – the shogunates – had been created. In 1600 a new shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu, declared victory. The emperor of Japan had no political power; he remained at Kyoto the medieval capital. The Tokugawa shoguns built a new capital for themselves at Edo (now Tokoyo). The shogun was served by the regional lords, each of who maintained a castle town, a small bureaucracy, a population of warriors – samurai – and military support personnel. The shoguns paid the lords in rice, and the lords paid their followers in rice. Recipients had to convert a large portion of their rice to cash. This system led to well-spaced urban centers. Good roads, traffic, and commerce linked Edo to three of the four main islands of Japan. Rice exchanges developed at Edo and Osaka, where merchants speculated in rice prices. Like China, Japan was a target of missionary activity by the Jesuits. Converts among the elite were few, and the shogunal court at Edo was consistently hostile to Christianity. Christianity was more successful among the farmers in the countryside. The Jesuits had their greatest success in the southern and eastern regions of Japan. In the late 1630s, these regions were the scenes of massive uprisings by impoverished farmers. The rebellions, which were ruthlessly suppressed were blamed on Christian influence. Hundreds of Japanese Christians were crucified. Belief in Christianity was banned by law. It became punishable by death for foreigners to come to Japan or for Japanese to leave. The purpose of the closing was to prevent the spread of foreign influence in Japan – not to exclude from Japan knowledge of foreign cultures. A few Dutch were permitted to trade in Japan, and a few Japanese were licensed to provide for them. The western knowledge they acquired spread. Population growth put a great strain on the well-developed lands of central Japan. Government was unable to stabilize rice prices which weakened the samurai. Like other Confucian societies, the Tokugawa tried to limit the power of merchants. The crisis of Tokugawa Japan’s transformation from a military to a civil society is demonstrated by the “Forty-seven Ronin” incident of 1702.