Chapter 19 PowerPoint

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CHAPTER 19
AN AGE OF EXPLORATIONS &
ISOLATION
SECTION 1
EUROPEANS EXPLORE THE EAST
FOR “GOD, GLORY, & GOLD”
• EUROPEANS EXPLORE
• SPICES
• DESIRE TO BE RICH,
SPREAD CHRISTIANITY,
& ADVANCES IN
SAILING
• MERCHANTS WERE
ABLE TO SELL SPICES AT
HIGH PRICES
• WHY?:
• CHRISTIANITY
• EUROPEANS BELIEVED
SACRED DUTY WAS TO
CONVERT NONCHRISTIANS.
• WHO WAS THEIR
OPPOSITION?
• BARTOLOMEU DIAS
• PORTUGUESE
EXPLORER, MOTIVES
WERE TO SERVE GOD,
GIVE LIGHT TO THOSE
IN DARKNESS & GROW
RICH.
• TECHNOLOGY
• IMPROVED SAILING.
STURDIER, TRIANGULAR
SAILS, NAVIGATION
(ASTROLABE).
PORTUGAL LEADS THE WAY
• PRINCE HENRY
• FOUNDED NAVIGATION
SCHOOL, MAJOR
SUPPORTER OF
EXPLORATION, GET
RICH & SPREAD
CHRISTIANITY, SET UP
TRADING NETWORK
ALONG WESTERN
AFRICA’S SHORES
• VASCO DA GAMA
• 1497, EXPLORED EAST
COAST OF AFRICA AND
THEN PORT OF CALICUT
(SW SHORE OF INDIA),
RETURNED HOME WITH
CARGO 60 TIMES COST
OF VOYAGE.
SPAIN ALSO MAKES CLAIMS
• CHRISTOPHER
COLUMBUS
• 1492- REACHED A
CARIBBEAN ISLAND
AND MISTAKENLY
THOUGHT IT WAS EAST
INDIES. OPENED THE
WAY FOR
COLONIZATION IN
AMERICA.
• TENSION
• TREATY OF
TORDESILLAS
• PORTUGAL & SPAIN
GREW TENSION AS
THEY BATTLE FOR LAND
• LINE OF DEMARCATIONWEST OF LINE WOULD
BE SPAIN’S, EAST OF
LINE WOULD BE
PORTUGAL’S
• 1494-BOTH COUNTRIES
AGREE TO HONOR THE
LINE
TRADING EMPIRES IN THE INDIAN
OCEAN
• PORTUGAL
• DOMINATED TRADE IN
INDIAN OCEAN,
PERSIAN GULF,
ARABIAN SEA, INDIA &
ASIA
• WHY ARE THEY
DETERMINED TO
PREVENT MUSLIMS
FROM CONTINUING
THEIR SPICE TRADE?
• THE DUTCH (A.K.A.
NETHERLANDS)
CHALLENGE
• BY 1600, LARGEST
FLEET IN WORLD.
• DUTCH EAST INDIA
COMPANY
• WEALTHY, MADE
TREATIES, RAISED
ARMIES. DROVE OUT
THE ENGLISH &
ESTABLISHED THEIR
DOMINANCE IN REGION
• DUTCH TRADE OUTPOSTS
• SEIZED CONTROL OF
MANY PORTUGUESE
AREAS INCLUDING
CONTROL OF INDIAN
OCEAN.
• BY 1700 THEY RULED
INDONESIA & HAD MANY
TRADING POSTS IN ASIA.
• ALSO CONTROLLED CAPE
OF GOOD HOPE ON
SOUTHERN TIP OF
AFRICA. RESUPPLY STOP
• EUROPEANS
• ONLY HAD INFLUENCE
IN SOUTHEAST ASIA ON
THE PORT CITIES NOT
INLAND
SECTION 2
CHINA LIMITS EUROPEAN CONTACTS
CHINA UNDER THE POWERFUL MING
DYNASTY
• MING DYNASTY
• HONGWU
• DOMINATED POWER IN
ASIA (1368-1644).
• COUNTRIES PAID
TRIBUTE TO THE MING,
& EXPECT EUROPEANS
TO DO THE SAME.
• 1ST MING EMPEROR,
CREATED MANY
REFORMS TO PROMOTE
POWER & PROSPERITY,
SEEN AS A TYRANT
• YONGLO
• ZHENG HE
• SON OF HONGWU TOOK
OVER IN 1398.
• MOVED CAPITAL TO
BEIJING, FORBIDDEN CITY
BUILT
• 1405, LAUNCHED 7
VOYAGES OF
EXPLORATION
• LED ALL VOYAGES,
EVERYTHING ABOUT
THEM WAS LARGE,
DISTRIBUTED GIFTS OF
SILK & SILVER
• 16 COUNTIES
EVENTUALLY PAY TRIBUTE
TO CHINA
• FOREIGN RELATIONS
• CHINA REMAINED
ISOLATED EVEN
THOUGH DEMAND OF
SILK & CERAMIC SKY
ROCKETED.
• OPPOSED EUROPEAN &
CHRISTIAN PRESENCE
MANCHUS FOUND THE QING DYNASTY
• MANCHUS
• PEOPLE OF MANCHURIA
INVADED CHINA & MING
DYNASTY FALLS
• TOOK CHINESE NAME
FOR THEIR DYNASTYQING
• LASTED 260 YEARS
• EXPANDED BORDER TO
INCLUDE TAIWAN,
CHINESE CENTRAL ASIA,
MONGOLIA, & TIBET
• CHINA UNDER THE
QING
• KANGXI
• FIRST RESISTED
• WHY?
• SLOWLY EARNED
RESPECT BY
UPHOLDING
CONFUCIAN BELIEFS &
STRUCTURE
• EMPERON IN 1661
RULDED FOR 60 YEARS,
REDUCED GOV.
EXPENSES & LOWERED
TAXES
• QIAN-LONG
• GRANDSON OF KANGXI,
RULED FROM 17361795, REACHED
GREATEST PROSPERITY,
WORKED ON EMPIRE’S
PROBLEMS
• CHINA’S RESTRICTIONS
• IF COUNTRIES WANTED
TO TRADE WITH CHINA
THEY WOULD HAVE TO
FOLLOW RULES & PAY A
TRIBUTE.
• KOREA
• PAID CHINESE TRIBUTE
& ADOPTED MANY
WAYS OF CHINA’S
BELIEFS
• GAINED STRONG SENSE
OF NATIONALISM AND
AWAY FROM CHINA
ESPECIALLY SEEN IN THE
ART.
LIFE IN MING & QING CHINA
• FAMILY LIFE
• FAMILIES FARMED NEW
FOOD, NUTRITION
IMPROVED & FAMILIES
EXPANDED
• SONS FAVORED, ONLY
ALLOWED TO PERFORM
VITAL RELIGIOUS RITUALS
• RAISE OWN FAMILY
UNDER PARENTS ROOF
• WHY?
• FEMALES NOT VALUED
• FEMALE INFANTS
OFTEN KILLED
• WIVES
RESPONSIBILITIES
INCLUDED WORKING IN
THE FIELDS,
SUPERVISED
CHILDREN’S
EDUCATION, MANAGED
FAMILY FINANCES.
SECTION 3
JAPAN RETURNS TO ISOLATION
A NEW FEUDALISM UNDER STRONG
LEADERS
• JAPAN
• DAIMYO
• VIOLENT ERA 14671568 KNOWN AS
SENGOKU OR WARRING
STATES
• WARRIOR CHIEFTAINS
OFFERED SECURITY FOR
LOYALTY
• ODA NOBUNAGA
• BRUTAL & AMBITIOUS
DAIMYO SEIZED
CAPITAL OF KYOTO
(1568).
• COULDN’T UNIFY JAPAN
& COMMITTED SUICIDE
• TOYOTOMI HIDEYOSHI
• NOBUNAGA’S BEST
GENERAL CONTINUED
THE MISSION.
CONTROLLED MOST OF
COUNTRY UNTIL HE
DIED IN 1598
• TOKUGAWA IEYASU
• UNIFIED JAPAN,
BECAME SOLE RULER,
MOVED CAPITAL TO
EDO (TOKYO).
• FORCED LOCAL
DAIMYO’S TO SPEND
EVERY OTHER YEAR IN
THE CAPITAL, THIS
TAMED THEM
• RULE OF LAW
OVERCAME THE RULE
OF THE SWORD
• MEANING?
• TOKUGAWA
SHOGUNATE
• DYNASTY OF SOLE
RULERS UNIFIED
• TAKE CARE OF THE
PEOPLE. STRIVE TO BE
VIRTUOUS. NEVER
NEGLECT TO PROTECT
THE COUNTRY.
LIFE IN TOKUGAWA JAPAN
• IDEAL SOCIETY
DEPENDED ON
AGRICULTURE NOT
COMMERCE
• WHY?
• SOCIETY SHIFT
• MID 1700’S FROM
RURAL TO URBAN. EDO
BECAME LARGEST CITY
IN WORLD WITH MORE
THAN 1 MILLION
PEOPLE. COMMERCIAL
CENTERS INCREASED
• HAIKU
• 5-7-5 SYLLABLE, 3-LINE
VERSE POETRY;
PRESENTED IMAGES
RATHER THAN IDEAS
• KABUKI
• THEATRE WHERE
ACTORS WERE IN
ELABORATE COSTUMES,
USING MUSIC, DANCE,
& MIME, PERFORMED
SKITS ABOUT MODERN
LIFE.
CONTACT BETWEEN EUROPE & JAPAN
• PORTUGUESE
MERCHANTS
• CASTLES BUILT
• FIRST GROUP IN JAPAN.
FIREARMS WAS THEIR
BIGGEST ITEM OF
TRADE.
• BUILT FORTIFIED
CASTLES TO
WITHSTAND
CANNONBALLS.
• WHY DID BUILDING OF
CASTLES ATTRACT
PEOPLE?
• CHRISTIAN
MISSIONARIES
• JAPAN ACCEPTS IT AT
FIRST. WHY?
• EVENTUALLY BANNED
BECAUSE WENT
AGAINST TRADITIONAL
JAPANESE BELIEFS
THE CLOSED COUNTRY POLICY
• BORDERS CLOSED
• STRENGTHENED
TOKUGAWA SHOGUNS
BY ELIMINATING
EUROPEAN IDEAS THAT
UNDERMINED
TOKUGAWA AUTHORITY
& LIMITING TRADE
PRODUCED MONOPOLY
& HIGH PROFITS
• LONG TERM EFFECT OF
CLOSED COUNTRY
POLICY
• MISSED
TECHNOLOGICAL
ADVANCES &
STAGNATION OF IDEAS

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