SOLAR CELL MATERIA DEVELOPMENT

Report
My name is Engr. Olu Ogunduyile. I am privileged of
God to be the Chairman / CEO of KENOL GROUP.
A company dedicated to ensuring that Nigeria and
Nigerians benefit from the technological advancement
going on all over the world.
The need for energy dates as far back as human
existence. Beginning with agriculture, without which
food, which is a basic necessity for survival is not
produced. Human intelligence has led to a wide range
of other sources of energy. Some of which are mineral
sources such as diamonds, coals, fossil fuels etc. These
minerals have been and are still being utilized in
power generation as well as serving as foreign
exchange earners for countries where they are found in
commercial quantities. Due to the ability of these
minerals to help generate power and earn income for
the country, they form a basic building block for the
economy. Nigeria, being blessed with abundance of
these natural minerals, has greatly enjoyed the benefit
of it in the two areas mentioned above.
The use of fossil fuel has been embraced for major
power generating project till date. This has led to a
major challenge, why? The answer been that the
mineral resources that we have enjoyed in the past
years is depleted, hence subject to extinction. The fear
of been suddenly thrown into darkness due to
exhaustion of these minerals, is one of the motivating
factors for a pro-active company like KENOL
GROUP, earnestly striving to provide the well
deserving people of Nigeria a way-out. One of the
major advantages that this alternative has over the
conventional use of fossil fuels is that it is renewable.
Solar energy
It has been observed that the earth as a resource
system is limited in its capacity to support a growing
population, going by the intense exchange of energy
and materials with the environment. This has resulted
in the need to seek more sustainable source of energy.
The awareness of this need has led to the discovery of
the energy that reaches the earth from the sun. The
earth receives energy directly from the sun. The energy
that it receives was discovered to have advantages of
the energy generated through the use of fossil fuels, in
that it does not generate the usual noise that is
associated with fossil fuel driven generators (it is
silent).
The energy was also observed not to be limited like the
mineral resources used for energy generation (which
are non renewable), the rising of the sun on a daily
basis provides energy that is renewable and
inexhaustible. Lastly, most fossil fuels, in the course of
generating energy through the process of combustion,
results in the production of carbon dioxide (CO2) or
carbon monoxide (CO) waste product which lead to
pollution. This makes the use of solar energy, green
compliant, as it will not contribute to the depletion of
the ozone layer.
Thus throughout the early phase of human
development, the availability of the readily renewable
sources of energy was a key constraint and affected the
size and distribution of populations. The sun’s power
reaching the earth is typically about 1000W/m2. The
total amount of energy that the earth receives daily is
1353W/m2. Some 4million tons of the sun’s matter will
continue to be changed into energy every second.The
sun is the most readily and widely available renewable
energy source capable of meeting the energy needs of
whole world. It can provide more power than any fossil
fuel on the planet
Having said all that, the question that needs to be
answered is how do we convert/trap this energy from
the sun and convert it into usable forms. This
utilization of solar energy depends on its availability
and appropriate technology. The idea of using the
sun’s power has held scientists in its grip for centuries.
Also, for most of its evolution, mankind relied for its
sources of energy on constantly replenished materials.
When the use of fire was discovered for the provision
of heat and for the processing of food, the additional
demand for energy was met by constantly renewed
sources.
Later still when water and wind powers were
harnessed to the service of mankind, the new sources
were also of a renewable nature. The solar radiation
arrives at the earth at a maximum flux density of about
1kw/m2 in wave length of band between 0.3 and
2.5μm.This is called short wave radiation and it
includes visible spectrum. For habited areas fluxes
received vary widely from about 3 to 30MJ/m2/day,
depending on place, time and weather. The quality of
radiation is characterized by the photon energy of
around 2eV as determined by 6000K surface
temperature of the sun.
Solar panels are made up of solar cells which are an
array of photovoltaic cells (PV). Any type of equipment
used to convert sunlight into energy is considered solar
cell or panels. The technology behind Solar panels has
varied widely throughout the five or six decades and
while Solar cells were the true origin of modern solar
panels, today researchers are shifting to new platform
and approaches to gathering energy from sunlight
which includes crafting solar cells from silicon,
semiconductor configured to trap and convert sun
energy which is collated in an antireflective coating
and contained under a glass cover plate to protect the
cell from the elements.
MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIR ABUJA
Nigeria is one of the tropical countries of the world
which lies approximately between 4o and 13o with
landmass of 9.24 x 105 km2, enjoys an average daily
sunshine of 6.25 hrs, ranging between about 3.5 hrs at
the coastal areas and 9.0 hrs at the far northern
boundary. Her electrical energy consumption in the
year 2001 is 15 x 106kWh. Its climate varies from
tropical to subtropical. There are two main seasons;
the dry season lasting from October to March and the
rainy season lasting from April to October. In the
north, it is hot and dry, rainy season extends between
April and September. In the south, it is hot and wet,
rainy season extends between March and December.
From December to March there is a long dry season
Temperature at the coast rarely rises above 32oC. The north is drier
with temperature range between 32oC and 42oC. Humidity is
about 95%.
The terrestrial radiation on Nigeria’s land area is 2.079
x 1015 kWh / year. The Nigerian economy can be
disaggregated into industry, transport, commercial,
household, and agricultural sectors, with the
household sector dominating energy consumption.
The energy consuming activities in the household
sector still remain mainly cooking, lighting, and
operations of electrical appliances (i.e., nonsubstitutable electricity). The percentage distribution
of the total final consumption in 1989 in this sector
and in terms of the major energy carriers is Kerosene
(13%), Electricity (4%), LPG (1%), and Wood/others
(82%).
Nigeria’s economy face deepening challenges: a
widening trade imbalance, growing competition from
developed countries, a collapse of big manufacturing
companies, and a sharp increase in the cost of doing
business, all owing basically to energy and its related
infrastructural costs. Energy demand far outweighs the
supply which is epileptic in nature. It is still pertinent
to note that our energy consumption is projected to
grow geometrically while our ability to sustain our
growth through energy generation, transmission and
distribution continues to dwindle. Our capability to
continue the trend for affordable energy will be
severely tested in the coming decades.
AREA VIEW OF LAGOS
Benefits of Solar Energy:
1. Solar energy is renewable. We never have to worry
about running out of sunlight or using it all up. The
sun is a consistent power source meaning it's always
going to be there every day.
2. Solar energy is environmentally friendly. Compared to
fossil fuels which release greenhouses gases,
carcinogens and carbon dioxide, solar cells don't
release anything into the air.
3. Solar panels are extremely reliable. There are no
moving parts so you don't have to worry about
replacing anything. In fact, most people generate
electricity for 1000s of hours with little or no
maintenance.
4. Solar cells make no noise while collecting energy.
There are no other renewable energy sources that are
completely silent.
5. In the long run, solar electricity is cheaper than
buying it from the power company. There is a start up
cost, but then it starts paying for itself. Once you break
even, everything after that is profit. Compare this to
paying a monthly bill and getting no return on
investment.
6. There is a huge variety of solar panel systems
available. Some can cost tens of thousands of dollars,
and some cost just a couple hundred. This means
anyone can get into solar, there's an entry point for just
about everybody.
7. You're not required to connect to the power grid. You
can be completely self-sufficient and live off-the-grid.
Imagine never paying another monthly bill or hook-up
charge.
8. Sell excess electricity. If you build a large enough solar
panel system, you can make your electric meter spin
backwards. Most power companies will gladly buy or
credit you for this excess electricity. Contact your local
power companies for more details.
9. Solar technology is constantly improving. Solar
installations are increasing by an incredible 50% every
year, most of which are small homemade systems.
SOME LOCATIONS WHERE SOLAR
LIGHT HAVE BEEN INSTALLED
DAY WATERMAN COLLEGE, ABEOKUTA
NEANDER SCHOOL EPE
AMUWO-ODOFIN LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL
BARUWA/ITIRE LOCAL GOVERNMENT COUNCIL
AGEGE LOCAL GOVERNMENT
OBA’S PALACE
ISOLO LOCAL GOVERNMENT
Need for solar cell material development
As a result of the discussion so far, it can be seen that
Nigeria has all that it takes to benefit immensely from the
use of solar energy, in that it is geographically located in
such a way as to enjoy sunlight on a daily basis, the only
constraint is the needed technology to trap this energy
and convert it into forms that can be readily accessed by
households and organizations as the need arises. In the
area of needed mineral resources, it was discovered that
Nigeria is blessed with the required mineral resources,
some of which are silicon ores and other minerals. The
country is so blessed that there is scarcely a State without
one form of mineral endowment of the other.
Below is a general overview of the resources in
some States;
ABUJA
Marble, Clay, Tantalite, Cassiterite, Gold
(partially investigated), Lead /Zinc
(Traces), Dolomite
BAYELSA STATE
Clay, Limestone, Gypsum (partially
investigated), Uranium (partially
investigated), Manganese, Lignite, Lead/Zinc
(Traces)
ABIA STATE
Gold, Salt, Limestone, Lead/Zinc
BAUCHI STATE
Amethyst (violet), Gypsum, Lead/Zinc
(Traces), Uranium (partially investigated)
BENUE STATE
Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Iron-Ore, Coal, Clay,
Marble, Salt, Berytes (traces), Gem stones,
Gypsum
ADAMAWA STATE
Kaolin, Bentonite, Gypsum, Magnetite
AKWA IBOM STATE
Lead/Zinc, Clay, Limestone, Uranium
(Traced), Salt, Lignite (Traced)
ANAMBRA STATE
Lead/Zinc, Clay, Limestone, Iron-Ore,
Lignite (Partially investigated), Salt,
Glass-Sand, Phosphate, Gypsum
BORNO STATE
Diatomite, Clay, Limestone, Hydro-carbon (oil
and gas, Partially investigated), Gypsum,
Kaolin, Bentonite
CROSS RIVER STATE
Limestone, Uranium, Manganese, Lignite,
Lead/Zinc, Salt
DELTA STATE
Marble, Glass Sand, Gypsum, Lignite, Iron-Ore,
Kaolin
KANO STATE
Prochinre, Cassiterite, Copper, Glass – Sand,
Gemstone, Lead/Zinc, Tantalite
EBONYI STATE
Lead, Gold, Salt
KATSINA STATE
Kaolin, Marble, Salt
EDO STATE
Marble, Lignite, Clay, Limestone, Iron Ore,
Gypsum, Glass-sand, Gold, Dolomite Phosphate,
Bitumen
KEBBI STATE
Gold
KOGI STATE
Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Gypsum, Feldspar, Goal, Marble,
Dolomite, Talc, Tantalite
EKITI STATE
Kaolin, Feldspar, Tatium, Granite, Syenite
ENUGU STATE
Coal, Limestone, Lead/Zinc
KWARA STATE
Gold, Marble, Iron-Ore, Cassiterite, Columbite,
Tantalite, Feldspar (Traces), Mica (Traces)
GOMBE STATE
Gemstone, Gypsum
LAGOS STATE
Glass-sand, Clay, Bitumen
IMO STATE
Lead/Zinc, Limestone, Lignite, Phosphate,
Marcasite, Gypsum, Salt
NASARAWA STATE
Beryl (emerald), Aqua marine, Heliodor,
Dolomite/Marble, Sapphire, Tourmaline, QuartzAmethyst (Topaz, gamet), Zircon, Tantalite,
Cassiterite, Columbite, Limonite, Galena, Iron-Ore,
Barytes, Feldspar, Limestone, Mica, Cooking coal,
Talc, Clay, Salt, Chalcopyrite
JIGAWAA STATE
Butytes
KADUNA STATE
Sapphire, Kaolin, Gold, Clay, Surpentinite,
Asbestos, Amethyst, Kyanite, Graphite (partially
investigated), Silhnite, Mica (Traces), Aqua marine,
Ruby, Rock Crystal, Topaz, Flosper, Tourmaline,
Gemstone, Tentalime
NIGER STATE
Gold, Talc, Lead/Zinc
OGUN STATE
Phosphate, Clay, Feldspar (traces),
Kaolin, Limestone, Gemstone, Bitumen
ONDO STATE
Bitumen, Kaolin, Gemstone, Gypsum,
Feldspar, Granite, Clay, Glass-sand,
Dimension stones, Limestone, Coal
OSUN STATE
Gild, Talc, Tourmaline, Columbite,
Granite
OYO STATE
Kaolin, Marble, Clay, Sillimanite, Talc,
Gold, Cassiterite, Aqua Marine,
Dolomite, Gemstone, Tantalite
PLATEAU STATE
Emerald, Tin, Marble, Granite,
Tantalite/Columbite, Lead/Zinc, Barytes,
Iron-Ore, Kaolin, Belonite,
Cassiterite, Phrochlore, Clay, Coal,
Wolfram, Salt, Bismuth, Fluoride,
Molybdenite, Gemstone, Bauxite
RIVER STATE
Glass-sand, Clay, Marble, Lignite (traces)
SOKOTO STATE
Kaolin, Gold, Limestone, Phosphate,
Gypsum, silica-sand, Clay, Laterrite,
Potash, Flakes, Granite, Gold, Salt
TARABA STATE
Kaolin, Lead/Zinc
YOBE STATE
Tintomite, Soda Ash (partially Investigated)
ZAMFARA STATE
Cotton, Gold
This shows that the limitation that the country is
facing in the development of solar cell materials is due
to our inability to effectively tap the abundant resource
that we have and convert them to meaningful use. The
process of tapping and converting these mineral
resource will contribute immensely to the
development of the Nigerian economy as the
dependence on crude oil will reduce and other means
of earning foreign exchange will come to the fore.
More so, it will lead to creation of job opportunities
through out the country. The materials for solar cells
that will be developed / made available in the process
will help solve one of the major issues facing the
development of the country, which is power
generation.
The provision of adequate power supply will help the
growth of many SMEs that require power for the
production of their goods and services, lead to
adequate security, as there will be no more dark
corners for perpetrating evil etc.
It is therefore our humble submission at KENOL
GROUP that there is an urgent need for us, as a
country to begin to make adequate use of the mineral
resources around us, especially in the area of providing
materials required for Solar cell development.
Thank you for listening.

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