An Age of Exploration and Isolation

Report
An Age of Exploration and Isolation
1400-1800
CHAPTER 19
Vocabulary
 Bartolommeo Dias: Portuguese explorer. 1st to sail




around Africa.
Prince Henry: “Henry the Navigator” Set up
navigation school. Opened exploration for everyone
Vasco da Gama: 1st to sail from Europe to India
(directly)
Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope Alexander IV peace
between Spanish/Portuguese. Line of Demarcation
split the Americas up for S/P.
Dutch East India Company: Dutch trading company
that controlled trade in Asia ($$RICH$$)
Vocabulary II
 Zheng He: Famous Chinese explorer
 Daimyo: Japanese feudal lord/noble
 Tokugawa Shogunate: A dynasty of
shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from
1603-1867. (Isolation)
 Haiku: Japanese poetry, consisting of three
unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five
syllables
An Age of Exploration and
Isolation
GLORY
GOD
GOLD
CHAPTER 19:1 1400-1800
Main Idea Questions
1.
What Role did the Renaissance play in launching
an age of exploration?
2. What was Prince Henry’s goal and who actually
achieved it?
3. What European countries were competing for
Asian trade during the age exploration?
Europeans Explore the East
“God, Glory, and Gold”
 Many Factors Encourage Exploration (3 G’s)
 Europeans Seek Greater Wealth
Demand for spices and other Eastern goods increased after
Crusades
 (nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon and pepper)
 Trade routes controlled by Muslim and Italian Merchants
 Wanted to find different way East

 The Spread of Christianity
 Europeans wanted to spread Christian ideas and convert nonChristians
For “God, Glory and Gold”
 Technological Advances

Invention of triangular
sails allowed ships to sail
against the wind

Invention of astrolabe,
sextant, and compass
allowed sailors to
accurately navigate

Caravel: Sturdy Hull,
triangular sails (against
the wind) astrolabe and
the magnetic compass
65 Feet Long (average)
Large cargo area
Shallow depth
Portugal Leads the Way
 The Portuguese Explore
Africa


Prince Henry the Navigator
founded a school to promote
exploration (1419)
Wanted to find a sea route to
Asia
 Portuguese Sailors Reach
Asia


In 1487, Bartholomew Dias
becomes the 1st European to
round S. Africa
In 1498, Vasco da Gama
reaches India by sea, trade
route opened from India to
Portugal
Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean
 Portugal’s Trading
Empire

During the early 1500’s,
Portugal captures ports in
India, the East Indies, and
the Philippines

Portugal had trade
monopoly in Asia,
allowing it to become the
richest European Country
Vasco da Gama
Trading in the Indian Ocean
 Other Nations Drive out the Portuguese
 In 1521, Spanish explorer Magellan becomes the first to round
the world
 The Dutch captured the East Indies in 1581, formed the Dutch
East India Company
 European Trading Outposts
 While Europeans controlled coastal ports, majority of inland
native peoples remained unaffected
Spain Also Makes Claims
 Spanish attempted a direct route to Asia
 1492
 The Portuguese believed that Columbus reached Asia
 Spain vs. Portugal over newly “claimed” lands
 Spain and Portugal are both Extremely Catholic!!!
 Pope Alexander VI stopped a potential war
 Treaty of Tordesillas

Line of Demarcation Zone
Other Nations Challenging The Portuguese
 The Dutch Republic (The Netherlands)
 1600: 20,000 ships
 Dutch East India Company
 Private Company to lead colonization
 Exploration of the East Indies (Batavia, Java)
 France and England develop their own East India
Companies
 Only gained access to port cities
Main Idea Questions: PG 535
1.
What Role did the Renaissance play in launching
an age of exploration?
2. What was Prince Henry’s goal and who actually
achieved it?
3. What European countries were competing for
Asian trade during the age exploration?
China Limits European
Contacts
CHAPTER 19:2
The Rise of the Ming
 Hongwu drives out the
Mongols in 1368



Helped restore farms,
removed Mongol traces
and promoted China’s
historical past!!
Returned to Confucian
ideals
Tyrant who feared being
revolts
 Son Yonglo moved
capital to Beijing and
constructed the
Forbidden City
The Forbidden City
 Beijing
 Started in 1406
 14 years to construct
 800 buildings with 9,000 rooms
 Largest palace complex in the
world
 Hidden from public view
 No foreigners were allowed
 Home of the Royal Family
China Under the Ming Dynasty
The Voyages of Zheng He
 Chinese Marco Polo
 40-300 ship voyages
 “Treasure Ship” 500ft

1.5 Football Fields
 27,000 crew members in
the fleet (City of
Jamestown)
 Distributed gives of silver
and silk

16 countries wanted to trade
with Ming Dynasty
 7th voyage was the last
(1433)
Columbus vs. Zheng He
Ming Foreign Relations
 1500s Ming Isolationism
 3 International Port Cities
 Canton, Macao, Ningbo
 Smugglers Industry (European and Chinese)
 Used Silver from South American Mines
 China did not Industrialized because….
 Confucian Ideas (farm life)
 Chinese Economy favored farms (high taxes on merchants)
 Christian Missionaries
 Brought Christianity, science/technology ie “Clock”
 Matteo Ricci
Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty
 Manchus (From
Manchuria)
establishes the
Ming Dynasty
 Ruled for 260 years
 Expanded to
Taiwan, Central
Asia, Mongolia and
Tibet
 Kangxi ruled 60
years


Peace and prosperity
Thirst for knowledge
Ethnocentrism: Belief in the superiority of one’s
own ethnic group
 Chinese Exclusion
 Chinese “Middle Kingdom” (Center of the Universe)
 Foreigners must follow Chinese customs to trade
(Dutch)

Kowtow: Kneeling-head to ground 9 times (respect)
 Dutch became exclusive trading partner
 Tea
Dutch vs. English
 Dutch Respected Chinese customs
 English did not respect (NO KOWTOW)
 Dutch gained access/British did not!!
 “…nor do we need any more of your country’s
manufactures.” Qian-Long
Life In Ming and Qing China
Families and the Role of
Women
 New increases in
fertilizer allowed for
more population
 Chinese favored sons
over daughters
 Elderly parents would
live with Sons
 Women raised the
children and tended he
home
No Retirement Homes In
China
Japan Returns to Isolation
CHAPTER 19:3
`
Japan Limits Western Contacts
 1467-1568 period of
“Warring States”
 Daimyos Take Control
 Tokugawa Shogunate
Unites Japan
Brought all of Japan under
control in 1600-1868
 Continued feudalism in
Japan
 Emperor and Shogun
 Shogun has all the
Power!!

Life In Tokugawa Japan
 Three words…..Stability, Prosperity and
Isolation
 Farmers produced more food=more population
 Structured society (Feudalism)
 Confucian ideals influenced society (Farmers!!)
 Mid 1700s shifted to urban society
 Edo (old fishing village) changes to Tokyo (Million)
Culture Under The Tokugawa Shogunate
 Samurai attended
dramas called Noh
Dramas


Glorified Samurai life
Tragic themes, battles,
courage
 Haiku: Short poetry
expressing images
 Kabuki: Plays where
actors mime in elaborate
costumes
Kabuki Theater
Contract Between Europe and Japan
Portugal Sends Ships,
Merchants and Tech.
Christian Missionaries in
Japan
 1543 first European contact  Accepted missionaries
b.c. they wanted guns
 (shipwrecked Portuguese)
 Cultural Diffusion
 Brought Clocks, eyeglasses,
tobacco, firearms
 Daimyo welcomed
strangers


Bought weapons
Sword vs. Gun
 Tokugawa Ieyasu did not
like Christians
 1612 Banned Christianity
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
Revolt in Southern Japan
was blamed on Christians
Forcible kick/killed
Christians
Christian Missionaries In Japan
 1549 Christian
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
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Missionaries arrive
By 1600, 300,000
Japanese converts
Tokugawa Ieyasu
disliked/distrusted
Christians
1612 Christianity is
banned
1637 Christianity is
banned after a revolt
The Closed Country Policy
 Loved European
Trade…..Hated European
ideas/ways

Feared revolt
 1639 “Closed Door Policy”
 One Port: Nagasaki


Only Dutch and Chinese allowed
Spanish/Portuguese banned
 Shoguns controlled Nagasaki
 200 years of European
Isolation


Japanese forbidden to leave
Self sufficient country
The Closed Country Policy
 Shoguns and Samurai feared
“outsider” ideas/ideals
 “Closed Door Policy”

One open port: Nagasaki

Only Dutch and Chinese
Merchants
 Shoguns could control the
single port
 200 years of isolation



Forbidden to leave
No new ideas from abroad
NO CULTURAL DIFFUSION
Main Ideas
1.
What happened during the period of “Warring States”?
1.
What was the structure of society in Tokugawa Japan?
2. What were the new styles of drama, art and literature in
Tokugawa Japan?
Chapter Quiz
1.
What were the three main reasons for the
European Exploration?
2. Name the famous Chinese explorer during the
Ming Dynasty?
3. What type of foreign policy did Japan use under the
Tokugawa Shogunate?

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