An Age of Exploration and Isolation 1400-1800 CHAPTER 19 Vocabulary Bartolommeo Dias: Portuguese explorer. 1st to sail around Africa. Prince Henry: “Henry the Navigator” Set up navigation school. Opened exploration for everyone Vasco da Gama: 1st to sail from Europe to India (directly) Treaty of Tordesillas: Pope Alexander IV peace between Spanish/Portuguese. Line of Demarcation split the Americas up for S/P. Dutch East India Company: Dutch trading company that controlled trade in Asia ($$RICH$$) Vocabulary II Zheng He: Famous Chinese explorer Daimyo: Japanese feudal lord/noble Tokugawa Shogunate: A dynasty of shoguns that ruled a unified Japan from 1603-1867. (Isolation) Haiku: Japanese poetry, consisting of three unrhymed lines of five, seven, and five syllables An Age of Exploration and Isolation GLORY GOD GOLD CHAPTER 19:1 1400-1800 Main Idea Questions 1. What Role did the Renaissance play in launching an age of exploration? 2. What was Prince Henry’s goal and who actually achieved it? 3. What European countries were competing for Asian trade during the age exploration? Europeans Explore the East “God, Glory, and Gold” Many Factors Encourage Exploration (3 G’s) Europeans Seek Greater Wealth Demand for spices and other Eastern goods increased after Crusades (nutmeg, ginger, cinnamon and pepper) Trade routes controlled by Muslim and Italian Merchants Wanted to find different way East The Spread of Christianity Europeans wanted to spread Christian ideas and convert nonChristians For “God, Glory and Gold” Technological Advances Invention of triangular sails allowed ships to sail against the wind Invention of astrolabe, sextant, and compass allowed sailors to accurately navigate Caravel: Sturdy Hull, triangular sails (against the wind) astrolabe and the magnetic compass 65 Feet Long (average) Large cargo area Shallow depth Portugal Leads the Way The Portuguese Explore Africa Prince Henry the Navigator founded a school to promote exploration (1419) Wanted to find a sea route to Asia Portuguese Sailors Reach Asia In 1487, Bartholomew Dias becomes the 1st European to round S. Africa In 1498, Vasco da Gama reaches India by sea, trade route opened from India to Portugal Trading Empires in the Indian Ocean Portugal’s Trading Empire During the early 1500’s, Portugal captures ports in India, the East Indies, and the Philippines Portugal had trade monopoly in Asia, allowing it to become the richest European Country Vasco da Gama Trading in the Indian Ocean Other Nations Drive out the Portuguese In 1521, Spanish explorer Magellan becomes the first to round the world The Dutch captured the East Indies in 1581, formed the Dutch East India Company European Trading Outposts While Europeans controlled coastal ports, majority of inland native peoples remained unaffected Spain Also Makes Claims Spanish attempted a direct route to Asia 1492 The Portuguese believed that Columbus reached Asia Spain vs. Portugal over newly “claimed” lands Spain and Portugal are both Extremely Catholic!!! Pope Alexander VI stopped a potential war Treaty of Tordesillas Line of Demarcation Zone Other Nations Challenging The Portuguese The Dutch Republic (The Netherlands) 1600: 20,000 ships Dutch East India Company Private Company to lead colonization Exploration of the East Indies (Batavia, Java) France and England develop their own East India Companies Only gained access to port cities Main Idea Questions: PG 535 1. What Role did the Renaissance play in launching an age of exploration? 2. What was Prince Henry’s goal and who actually achieved it? 3. What European countries were competing for Asian trade during the age exploration? China Limits European Contacts CHAPTER 19:2 The Rise of the Ming Hongwu drives out the Mongols in 1368 Helped restore farms, removed Mongol traces and promoted China’s historical past!! Returned to Confucian ideals Tyrant who feared being revolts Son Yonglo moved capital to Beijing and constructed the Forbidden City The Forbidden City Beijing Started in 1406 14 years to construct 800 buildings with 9,000 rooms Largest palace complex in the world Hidden from public view No foreigners were allowed Home of the Royal Family China Under the Ming Dynasty The Voyages of Zheng He Chinese Marco Polo 40-300 ship voyages “Treasure Ship” 500ft 1.5 Football Fields 27,000 crew members in the fleet (City of Jamestown) Distributed gives of silver and silk 16 countries wanted to trade with Ming Dynasty 7th voyage was the last (1433) Columbus vs. Zheng He Ming Foreign Relations 1500s Ming Isolationism 3 International Port Cities Canton, Macao, Ningbo Smugglers Industry (European and Chinese) Used Silver from South American Mines China did not Industrialized because…. Confucian Ideas (farm life) Chinese Economy favored farms (high taxes on merchants) Christian Missionaries Brought Christianity, science/technology ie “Clock” Matteo Ricci Manchus Found the Qing Dynasty Manchus (From Manchuria) establishes the Ming Dynasty Ruled for 260 years Expanded to Taiwan, Central Asia, Mongolia and Tibet Kangxi ruled 60 years Peace and prosperity Thirst for knowledge Ethnocentrism: Belief in the superiority of one’s own ethnic group Chinese Exclusion Chinese “Middle Kingdom” (Center of the Universe) Foreigners must follow Chinese customs to trade (Dutch) Kowtow: Kneeling-head to ground 9 times (respect) Dutch became exclusive trading partner Tea Dutch vs. English Dutch Respected Chinese customs English did not respect (NO KOWTOW) Dutch gained access/British did not!! “…nor do we need any more of your country’s manufactures.” Qian-Long Life In Ming and Qing China Families and the Role of Women New increases in fertilizer allowed for more population Chinese favored sons over daughters Elderly parents would live with Sons Women raised the children and tended he home No Retirement Homes In China Japan Returns to Isolation CHAPTER 19:3 ` Japan Limits Western Contacts 1467-1568 period of “Warring States” Daimyos Take Control Tokugawa Shogunate Unites Japan Brought all of Japan under control in 1600-1868 Continued feudalism in Japan Emperor and Shogun Shogun has all the Power!! Life In Tokugawa Japan Three words…..Stability, Prosperity and Isolation Farmers produced more food=more population Structured society (Feudalism) Confucian ideals influenced society (Farmers!!) Mid 1700s shifted to urban society Edo (old fishing village) changes to Tokyo (Million) Culture Under The Tokugawa Shogunate Samurai attended dramas called Noh Dramas Glorified Samurai life Tragic themes, battles, courage Haiku: Short poetry expressing images Kabuki: Plays where actors mime in elaborate costumes Kabuki Theater Contract Between Europe and Japan Portugal Sends Ships, Merchants and Tech. Christian Missionaries in Japan 1543 first European contact Accepted missionaries b.c. they wanted guns (shipwrecked Portuguese) Cultural Diffusion Brought Clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms Daimyo welcomed strangers Bought weapons Sword vs. Gun Tokugawa Ieyasu did not like Christians 1612 Banned Christianity Revolt in Southern Japan was blamed on Christians Forcible kick/killed Christians Christian Missionaries In Japan 1549 Christian Missionaries arrive By 1600, 300,000 Japanese converts Tokugawa Ieyasu disliked/distrusted Christians 1612 Christianity is banned 1637 Christianity is banned after a revolt The Closed Country Policy Loved European Trade…..Hated European ideas/ways Feared revolt 1639 “Closed Door Policy” One Port: Nagasaki Only Dutch and Chinese allowed Spanish/Portuguese banned Shoguns controlled Nagasaki 200 years of European Isolation Japanese forbidden to leave Self sufficient country The Closed Country Policy Shoguns and Samurai feared “outsider” ideas/ideals “Closed Door Policy” One open port: Nagasaki Only Dutch and Chinese Merchants Shoguns could control the single port 200 years of isolation Forbidden to leave No new ideas from abroad NO CULTURAL DIFFUSION Main Ideas 1. What happened during the period of “Warring States”? 1. What was the structure of society in Tokugawa Japan? 2. What were the new styles of drama, art and literature in Tokugawa Japan? Chapter Quiz 1. What were the three main reasons for the European Exploration? 2. Name the famous Chinese explorer during the Ming Dynasty? 3. What type of foreign policy did Japan use under the Tokugawa Shogunate?