SQ Sec 3 Part 1

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TACTICS OF RULE
The New Imperialism 1870-1914
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Section III - 13 questions (32.5%)
Part 1
New imperialism
• Europeans reshaped their empires during the late 19th
century
• Prior to the _______s, Europeans used ____________
expansionism to gain territories for their empires
– ________________ campaigns of conquest and occupation
replaced the old system in Asia and Africa
– The term “_________________________” distinguishes this
brand of imperialism from prior versions
• New imperialism was founded upon the same ideological
tenets as the imperialism of the mid 19th century
– The liberal _______________ mission appeared during the
beginning of new imperialism
– The system of expansion soon lost touch with its philosophical
roots
Four characteristics of new
imperialism:
• European nations officially adopted imperialism for the first time in the 19th
century
– Expansionist __________ replaced empires governed primarily by _________
– European governments had previously sponsored imperialism _________ it had
already occurred
– The state replaced _____________________& _________________as the holder
of imperial initiative
• New nations entered the world of imperialism
– _____________,_________, and _____________entered into the European arena
– The ________________________and __________also emerged as global powers
– ______________’s longstanding superiority in global sovereignty started to fade
• The more competitive environment changed the political strategies of nations
engaging in imperialism
– Nations sought explicit ____________________________________and
_________________________________ instead of informal influence
New Imperialism’s Mission
• New imperialism defined its own ideological
mission
– This brand of expansion created an unbreachable
________between imperialists and colonial subjects
– _______________ ideas of a liberal empire were
gradually abandoned
– Europeans retreated from the ______________ goals of
the early and mid 19th century
– This imperialism
• abandoned ____________ guidelines
• saw Europe rise to the ___________ of its global power
Causes of the New Imperialism:
Multiple factors
• New imperialism materialized from multiple
factors
–
–
–
–
–
Technology
Nationalism
Economics
Politics
Culture
• Significant changes in the second half of the 19th
century allowed the system of expansion to come
into being
• Most of these changes occurred in ___________
Technology
• By the late 19th century, Europeans had access to technologies
that redefined imperialism
– Steamships, industrial weaponry, quinine, and gunboats all played a
role in prior European expansion
• Gunboats: armed steamboats
• 2 examples of the power of technology
– The opening of China and
– the conquest of Burma
• The second industrial revolution of the late 19th century
increased the power of technology
– The speed, vigor, and extent of conquests increased as a result
– Ironclad warships were equipped with steam turbines
• These boats spread the superior weaponry of Europe across the world
• The ____________ simplified military mobilization logistics
• ____________ eased the construction of roads
• Modern _____________ reduced the danger of living in the
tropics
Nationalism…
• Created new _________________within imperial powers to
conquer the world
– term must be understood in the ______________ sense
• developed in new ways
– During the early 19th century, nationalism encompassed
_______________and ________________ ideas
• Assoc. w/ liberal and democratic _________
– Within the era of new imperialism, nationalism shifted to an
_______________and _____________version
• Assoc. w/ the mass politics of the __________
• included emotional appeals to ____________and_________
– It challenged the liberal policies of the mid 19th century
– The possibilities of societal _____________ and the __________
individual trumped these liberal policies
– Imperial domination became the marker of ___________ and a
sign of national _____________
NATIONALISM
• contributed to the rise of a new
economic and political order of
nation states
– Germany experienced a national
_____________ that transformed
it into one of the most formidable
European powers
– The rise of ______________and
the appearance of the
________________and _________
as industrial giants rearranged the
global balance of power
• These events affected the stakes of
empire
NATIONALISM
• The __________ experienced a substantial
challenge to their global sovereignty
– They had not experienced such an obstacle since the late
18th century
– __________ was put on the back burner as a third-rate
power
• Britain and France had to go on the political and
economic defensive
– hoped that an expansive __________ would compensate
for the loss of political and economic
_________________
• Germany, the United States, and Japan responded
by creating their own _____________________
Economics
• Imperial nations viewed colonies as
– markets for industrial goods
– sources for raw materials and cash crops
– investment grounds for excess capital
• The rise of ________ and the ______________as
major industrial powers upset the previous
economic balance
– By 1890, both the U.S. and Germany exceeded British
__________&___________production
– Germany outsold Britain in
• Latin America,
• the Ottoman Empire, and
• China
ECONOMICS
• An industrial economic ____________ existed
from _______ through the ______s
– The idea that colonial markets could serve as
___________ against the vacillations present in
global commerce caught on
– Western nations abandoned ____________
policies in the _____s and _____s
• __________________policies gained strength
• These strategies advocated
– trade ______________in the domestic market and
– the establishment of colonies as protected economic spheres
ECONOMICS
• A new wave of industrial ____________
ushered in fears of _____________ in the
domestic market
– Industrial overproduction resulted
– Europeans viewed empire as an outlet for capital and
good surpluses
Economic rationales alone do not
account for new imperialism
• Governments often pursued imperialism when economic
________ outweighed economic _______
• Colonies did serve as great markets for European industrial
goods in the late 19th century
– In 1890, INDIA served as the source of _______of British industrial
goods and _________of British investment capital
• European nations traded far more with
__________________than with their own colonies
– Britain traded more with ________________and the _______ than
with its ___________ or _____________ colonies
– _______________ was the largest overseas investor and trader in
the era of new imperialism
• The most industrialized and economically powerful nations did
not always take the lead in imperialist expansion
– _____________ accumulated the world’s second largest empire, but
– ___________ far outpaced France as an industrial producer
Politics
• The primacy of nation-states brought ________ and ______
ambitions to the forefront
• Imperialist actions followed political motives just as much as
economic motives
– Seizing territorial expanses preempted other nation-states’ empires
• ______________sought to build a strong German _________
to combat Britain’s global power
– Wilhelm II ruled Germany from _____to______
– Britain depended on its naval dominance in
• North Africa,
• the Ottoman Empire,
• and China
• Italy sought a colonial empire in East and North
____________ to achieve status as a great global power
Culture
• Nation-states in the late 19th century utilized imperialism to
assist the process of __________________
– Imperialism fully unified a country’s citizenry
– Loyalties shifted from the local community to the ___________community
• This process initially met resistance
– The loss of _______________was a particularly hard idea to accept
– National leaders enticed citizens with ideas of ________
• Empire represented the ___________ property of the nation
– In theory, empire transcended __________________
• IN THEORY: Peasants and workers along with upper class elite were
_______________ to colonial subjects
• In reality, _________
– Empire also served as
• the nation’s ________________ that contrasted with
• the weak _________________colonies
• Imperialism and imperial ___________ united nation-states
– Race hierarchies replaced hierarchies of ___________
Proud Brits!
• British troops attacked and
looted the _______ capital of
_________ in __________
– This capital is currently located
in southern _____________
– This expedition responded to
the ambush of a British military
force sent in 1896 to force
______________________
from the Edo king
• Photograph shows British
officers surrounded by
treasure including
– Benin bronzes
– seized from the royal
compound
• Stolen objects ended up in
___________and_________
art museums
3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80)
• 1. What are four features of “new imperialism”?
• -European nations adopted imperialism as an
official policy
• -A new group of nations began to imperialize
• -Nations sought explicit territorial occupation and
political conquest
• -Europeans began to see a clear, gap between
them and the colonized people, no longer
seeking to “civilize” rather just to control.
3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80)
• 2. What five new nations emerged as imperialist
powers in the “new imperialism” period?
•
•
•
•
•
-Germany
-Belgium
-Italy
-US
-Japan
3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80)
• 3. What three technologies helped spread
European influence abroad in the 20th
century?
• -steamships
• -industrial weaponry
• -quinine to treat malaria
3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80)
• 4. What forces were at play with the new
nationalism and imperialist struggle?
• -economic factors
• -political motives
• -cultural incentives
The Scramble for Africa
• Chambers, et al. (Mortimer Chambers, Barbara Hanawalt,
Theodore K.Rabb, Isser Woloch, and Lisa Tiersten) consider
the scramble for Africa to be the most
remarkable chapter of the expansion of
Europe in the late 19th century
• _______ European states split up Africa from
_____to_____
• Only
– Abyssinia (ETHIOPIA)
– Liberia remained independent
The starting line: The Berlin
Conference
• German Prime Minister _____________
presided over the Berlin Conference
–lasted from _____ to ______
–originally summoned to settle control
of the _______ River between
• the Belgians
• the Portuguese
The Berlin` Conference
• The _____________
came to establish the
ground rules for
European colonization
of ____________
– Many European
governments disliked the
haphazard settlement of
African territory seen up
through the mid-1880s
Bismarck
The Berlin Conference: a turning point
in European diplomacy
• Africa endured bloodshed and suffering even as
Europeans settled their continental disputes
• ___________ diplomatic shrewdness
contributed to European cooperation at the
Berlin Conference
– The bulk of African territories went to
_________and __________ to compensate for
their loss of _____________ in Europe
– This ceding of territories also refueled the
_____________________________________
– ____________ foreign policy thus had a major
impact on the scramble for Africa, even though the
country held few African colonies
Lines of European influence in Africa
had been long drawn
• The political discussion served to ratify the
principle that European __________________
– ensured the claim to the land beyond the coast
– if authority could be established
• The Berlin Conference did legitimize some new
claims in central Africa
– _________and_____________gained control of parts
of central Africa
– The discussion primarily extended European control
from existing coastal settlements into Africa’s interior
The Berlin Conference centralized power in
Africa, a traditional decentralized political
landscape
• Africans experienced a shift in political lines that
redrew __________ and __________groups
– Some new European colonies encompassed more
than _________ African political units
• Artificial implementation of the “_________”
designation reconfigured African ethnic and
cultural ____________
– Many modern-day tribes are the result of the Berlin
Conference
– Christian missionaries did attempt to _____________
related language dialects
• These attempts strengthen cultural bonds between
otherwise disparate groups
Extended European abolition of slavery and
the slave trade to Africa
• Explorers such as _____________________had
unsuccessfully campaigned against the slave trade in East
Africa in the mid 19th century
• Europeans enforced abolitionism in their new role as
formal _____________
• Abolitionism stemmed from both
– humanitarian purposes
– as a politically expedient
pretense for conquest
• African slavery still existed
underground until the early
20th century
• ______________ replaced
slavery
– European colonizers even utilized this forced labor
themselves
The wars of conquest
• The conquest of Africa came only through bloody
wars of conquest that lasted from the _______s to
the first decade of the 20th century
• Europeans enjoyed several advantages during
these armed conflicts
– Coastal African footholds and longstanding commercial
connections provided a steady stream of
___________and local __________ of operations
– Divisions between local communities also left African
communities open for European Expansion
• The British used the subdued _________ against the
_____________overlords
» The British then conquered the Nupe soon after
Europeans’ enormous technological
advantage, especially in weaponry
• The second ______________________magnified
the already existing arms gap between Europeans
and Africans
• Africans acquired ______ in the late 19th century
• By this time, Europeans had rapid-firing
___________________and_________________
• Breechloaders were also called ___________
rifles
• Europeans tested most of the weaponry used in
_________________during the colonial warfare
of the late 19th century
The Battle of Omdurman
• The Battle of ________________
– in __________
– exemplifies the arms _______
• This ________skirmish saw Anglo-Egyptian forces use
– hand-driven _____________machine guns and
– field artillery
• Only ________Anglo-Egyptians died, with another
________ wounded
• In stark contrast, ___________ Sudanese soldiers
died, with another _________ wounded
African Resistance
• If Africans gained equal firearm technology, they normally
resisted European invasions
• Islamic _________ ruler ___________in French West Africa
fended off French troops from the mid _____s to the late ____s
• French West Africa occupied modern-day
__________________________________________________
• ______________________was the most critical component of
European conquest of Africa
Dark Horses: New imperial nations
• European nations besides Britain and France
created substantial African empires
• _____________entered as a major African power
following the Berlin Conference
– ______________established his claims in the Congo
at the political roundtable
• European powers did extract ____________and_________
rights in the region
– Belgian domination of the __________________took
over _____years
• This area of land is now known as the
__________________________________
• The Congo Free State is ______times larger than Belgium
The dark horses: New imperial
nations
• ___________ also inserted itself
into the scramble for Africa
– __________________claimed a few
African _____________ for Germany
during the Berlin Conference
• These 4 areas were the most
active areas for German
missionaries and Traders:
–
–
–
–
South West Africa (NAMIBIA)
East Africa (TANZANIA)
Cameroon, and
Togoland (TOGO)
German Belligerence: Morocco
• The ascension of _______________ to
power in ________forced
_____________ from power
• Germany initiated an aggressive
____________________
• strategies made Germany an active
threat to both imperial
– Britain
– France
• The _________________of
_____ - ______ erupted from German
protests of the ___________________
power split in the region
• Germany wanted a sphere of influence
in ______________
German Belligerence: Agadir
• The __________Incident of _________developed
from a German __________arriving in the port of
Agadir in ____________
• Wilhelm II sent this boat to intimidate the ______
• Both the ____________________and the
____________________had _____________
resolutions
• France retained effective control of Morocco
through both incidents
• These incidents highlight the _____________ of
the post-Bismarckian government inGermany
The Agadir Incident: 1911
Portugal
• The Portuguese expanded
their holdings on Africa’s
_____and__________coasts
– West African coasts:
_____________________
– East Africa coast:
_______________________
• These led to prolonged wars
of resistance, especially in
the _____________ Valley
Italy
• Italy experienced ________________from its
colonization of Africa
– The new country sought to increase its international standing
by taking territory in _______ Africa (HORN OF AFRICA)
– in ________, the Italians seized
• Eritrea
• Somaliland (Somalia)
• in _______,King _________________Abyssinian troops resisted
Italian encroachments
– at the Battle of _____________
– _____________-man army armed with
• European breechloaders,
• field artillery, and
• a few machine guns
• Italy did successfully establish a protectorate in
____________ Libya in __________
The has-been’s resurgence: France
• ________and___________expansion in Africa
overshadowed all other European expansion
• France dominated _______Africa and ________ Africa
– The British : French Empire as a mere ________________
• France expanded in every direction from __________
– To the east, France eliminated British and Italian influence
• The growing indebtedness of rulers served as the excuse for
the declaration of ___________ as a French protectorate in
1881
• To the west, France moved on _____________
– ______ gained a small realm of control within the country
– The French successfully kept the ___________ out of Morocco
– By _______, the French established the sub-Saharan territory of
__________________________
The has-been’s resurgence: France
• The French claimed part of __________ in eastern Africa
• In 1896, France conquered _________________
– A __________ plantation economy thrived based on forced
labor of the indigenous peoples
• France established the ________________in central Africa
in __________
– This area of land is currently known as the
_____________________
• The 1900 invasion of the region of Lake _______ united
French interests in North Africa and West Africa with
central African land holdings
• Chad and French Congo combined in _________ to form
__________________________________
The long-time favorite: Britain
• British imperialists had long
envisioned a railway that
connected __________to______
• To span the British African Empire
• _____________________announc
ed plans for a ___________and
___________________from Cairo
to Cape Town in ________
• Caricatures appeared of this South
African ___________ magnate
following his announcement
The long-time favorite: Britain
• The British moved to
consolidate their hold on
________&______ in the 1880s
– The French lost joint control of
_______in the 1870s and 1880s
• France and Britain had previously
shared ______________ control over
Egypt
• The French had financed the
construction of the
____________
• Egypt became a British
protectorate in ________
British used Egypt as a base to expand
into Turco-Egyptian-controlled Sudan
• The suppressed millenarian jihadist _____________state then
fought against the British
– This power had previously tried to overthrow Egyptian rule during
the __________
• Armies of the Mahdi attacked ___________ in _______
– MAHDI means ____________________
– Khartoum served as the Egyptian capital of ______________
– A _______-month siege followed
• General ____________________________________Anglo-Egyptian troops
faced annihilation
• The general gained his nickname from his previous role in suppressing the
________________Rebellion
– The Mahdi established an ________________ state centered at
nearby ___________________
• The British launched a new campaign to retake Sudan in _____
– In ______, Lord _____________ led the famed battle at Omdurman
Charles “Chinese” Gordon
Khartoum: Gordon’s last stand
Kitchener avenges Gordon’s death
BRITISH EAST AFRICA and BUGANDA
• British Sudanese expansion
linked Egypt with British
colonies in southeast Africa:
– ____________________in 1888
– now known as
________________
• ___________ became a
British colony in 1894
– Now known as _____________
the British Gold Coast
• The British simultaneously
expanded from trading forts
purchased from
– the Netherlands and
– Denmark
• The British defeated the
____________, gaining
control of _________
• The _______________
expanded into Nigeria from
________to __________
• ________________led this
British-chartered company
Expansion from British Cape Colony
• The _______________ War of _____to_____
allowed the British to expand north
• _____________led British expansion in this
region
The British Wedge
• The British created a wedge between German
______________ Africa and German _________Africa
–
–
–
–
–
–
German South West Africa: modern-day ______________
German East Africa incorporates parts of
Mozambique,
continental Tanzania,
Rwanda, and
Burundi
• British territories also approached the southern
border of the __________________
• This expansion similarly threatened independent
_______________republics that were located north
of the Cape Colony
Cecil Rhodes
(1853-1902)
“The Colossus of Rhodes”
“We must find new lands
from which we can easily
obtain raw materials and at
the same time exploit the
cheap slave labor that is
available from the natives
of the colonies. The
colonies would also provide
a dumping ground for the
surplus goods produced in
our factories.”
~CECIL RHODES
“Remember that you
are an Englishman, and
have consequently won
first prize in the lottery
of life”
"I contend that we are
the first race in the
world, and that the
more of the world we
inhabit the better it is
for the human race...If
there be a God, I think
that what he would like
me to do is paint as
much of the map of
Africa British Red as
possible...”
Discovery of Diamonds and Gold Leads
to Boer War
• The 1860s discovery of diamonds and the 1880s
finding of gold in the _____________ republics
led to _________________ encroachment
– British colonies surrounded the Afrikaner republics by
_______
• British citizens soon overran the independent African states
• The Afrikaners declared war in ________
– British forces quickly occupied the major Afrikaner
cities
• The Boer War still lasted until ________
– Skillful _________________ resistance allowed the
Afrikaners to draw out the war
• The rest of Europe watched Britain make slow progress
across the Afrikaner republics
The Boer War: 1899 - 1900
The Boers
The British
The Boer War
• The British began targeting ______________
– Homeless Afrikaners gathered together in areas
known as ________________________
• Disease and starvation killed at least _____________
men in these areas
• Approximately _____________men died throughout
the Boer War
• The advent of the Boer War inspired
________________feelings in the British
– As the war dragged on, British citizens and
politicians grew ________________
A Future British Prime Minister
British Boer War Correspondent,
Winston Churchill
The Boer War
1899-1902
• The Boers fought an irregular, guerilla style war
against the British army. The Boers depended upon
their knowledge of the land, hit-and-run tactics, and
help from the local people to wage war.
• H. H. Kitchner was the general of the British army.
He employed brutally harsh tactics to suppress the
Boers.
• Total War
• Scorched Earth Policy
• Concentration Camps (first use of this term)
The Boer War
• The result of the Boer War was that the Cape
Colony and the three Dutch states were
combined to form the Union of South Africa.
• The agrarian Boer landscape was devastated
by the British scorched earth tactics.
• The population of Boers and black South
Africans was devastated by the war and the
internment camps.
The Union of South Africa
• British victory in the Boer War allowed the
_______ establishment of
_________________________
• _________________’s ambitions became
partially fulfilled
– The British implemented Afrikaner policies of
________________
– These regulations appeased ___________minorities
– __________________ of white and black Africans
became standard practice in South Africa
Unsportsmanlike conduct: IntraEuropean conflict in Africa
• ________________ clashes increased in
number by the turn of the 20th century
• The amount of European expansion present
throughout Africa as well as the heightened
tension in Europe contributed to these
skirmishes
– The _______________represented one such
conflict
– The Afrikaners possessed ____________ weapons
Unsportsmanlike conduct: IntraEuropean conflict in Africa
• Britain and France fought
– at Fashoda
– on the Nile River
– in 1898
The FASHODA CRISIS
• The conflict was the inevitable meeting of
French and British expansion
– The French expanded from _____to______Africa
– The British expanded south from _________ and
north from _________________
• French forces heading east from the _______
met British troops going south from
_____________________
Unsportsmanlike conduct: IntraEuropean conflict in Africa
• The _____________ affair in France caused
the French government to back down from
conflict with Britain
• The French recognized British control of the
___________ in exchange for the British
recognition of ______________________
The Dreyfus Affair
• The _______Egyptian revolt fought against
British and French financial influence
– ____________instigated the revolt
– ________________headed the British South
Africa Company
A trackside perspective: Why Britain
acquired Egypt
• ___________________
(1841 – 1917)
– the first British
Commissioner of the
__________________
– First Earl of _________
– the British Agent and
___________________
after Britain’s 1882
colonization of Egypt
Evelyn Baring, Earl of Cromer
Consul General of Egypt
Cromer ruled Egypt with an iron fist
• He reorganized Egypt
– financially,
– judicially, and
– administratively
• These actions saved Egypt from
_________________
– He successfully defended Egypt from other
European powers
Cromer ruled Egypt with an iron fist
• Egyptians disliked Cromer’s
______________ways
– Cromer often subordinated Egypt to
___________interests
• ____________-class Egyptians could not
receive higher ____________
• Cromer feared that education would lead to
____________________sentiment
• _____________ had followed this pattern
Cromer ruled Egypt with an iron fist
• Cromer engaged in agricultural experiments to
promote the growth of Egyptian __________
• These successful tests provided British
industries with raw materials
WORKBOOK BREAK…
Cromer: Admired in the West
• The West greatly admired Cromer
• The London Times
– called him __________________________
– after his death in ________________
• In the excerpt, Cromer explains
– why the British took over Egypt
• According to Cromer,
– no other European power could have done the
same
3.01 LISTING (pp. 78-80)
• 5. What two areas of Africa remained free
after European imperialism of 1880-1912?
• -Abyssnia (Ethiopia)
• -Liberia
3.02 IDENTIFY (pp. 79-80)
3.02 IDENTIFY (pp. 79-80)
3.02 IDENTIFY (pp. 79-80)
3.02 IDENTIFY (pp. 79-80)
3.02 IDENTIFY (pp. 79-80)
3.03 DEFINITIONS (pp. 78-83)
3.03 DEFINITIONS (pp. 78-83)
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p. 80-82)
T F 1. At the Berlin Conference the European
powers drew lines of partition to divide up
African territory.
• 1. False—the lines had been drawn long
before the conference. At the conference they
ratified the idea that a claim to coastal lands
gave a country claims inland as well.
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p. 80-82)
T F 2. The Berlin Conference decentralized
power in Africa.
2. False—it centralized power in a previously
decentralized political landscape.
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p. 80-82)
T F 3. The Berlin Conference extended the
European abolition of slavery and the slave
trade to Africa.
TRUE
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p. 80-82)
T F 4. Advanced European weaponry was used
for the first time in World War I.
• 4. False--The weaponry used in World War I
was first tested in the late 19th century
colonial wars.
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p. 80-82)
T F 5. Europeans benefitted from the divisions
between local African communities.
TRUE
3.04 TRUE OR FALSE (p. 80-82)
T F 6. Even when Africans had access to equally
advanced technology, they were easily
defeated by the Europeans.
• 6. False—in the rare cases where Africans had
access to technology they were often able to
thwart European conquest.
3.05 CHOICES (p. 80-82)
• 1. In Africa, the Europeans faced _________
resistance from the indigenous peoples.
• little
• much
3.05 CHOICES (p. 80-82)
• 2. Europeans _________________ _________
the divisions between local African
communities.
• Benefitted from
• Fought against
3.05 CHOICES (p. 80-82)
• 3. Otto von Bismarck was _________
imperialistically aggressive than Kaiser
Wilhelm II.
• more
• less
3.05 CHOICES (p. 80-82)
• 4. ___________ was discovered in South
Africa in 1886.
• diamonds
• gold
3.05 CHOICES (p. 80-82)
• 5. In the nineteenth century, Germany was
working to build up a strong __________ to
challenge Britain’s global power.
• army
• navy
3.05 CHOICES (p. 80-82)
• 6. The Congo Free State was 70 times
_________ than Belgium.
• larger
• smaller
3.05 CHOICES (p. 80-82)
• 7. The gap in weaponry between the
Europeans and the indigenous Africans was
_____________ new.
• completely
• nothing
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• When did the Berlin Conference take place?
• 1884-85
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• Who presided over the conference?
• German Prime Minister Otto von Bismarck
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• Was the leader an effective one?
• Yes, he was diplomatically shrewd and his
leadership fostered cooperation amongst the
powers present
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• What was the purpose of the conference?
• To sort out the conflict between the
Portuguese and Belgians over control of the
Congo and to lay ground rules of colonization
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• The bulk of the African territories were given
to what two powers?
• Great Britain, France
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• Whose claims to the Congo were legitimized
at the conference?
• King Leopold II of Belgium
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• How was the African map redrawn?
• It consolidated previously separate polities
and ethnic groups in new European units.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• What motivated the abolitionist push at the
conference?
• Humanitarianism and the fact that it was
politically expedient as a justification for
conquest.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• 1._________________________managed to enlarge
its _________________________holdings on the West
African coast and to establish Portuguese East Africa on
the Southeast coast of Africa.
• 2. _________________________sought to stake a
territorial claim in East Africa but were defeated by
King _________________________II’s troops.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• 3.Italy was able to successfully declare a
_________________________in Tripoli in 1912.
• 4. ___________clearly dominated West Africa and
_________________________Africa, expanding out in
every direction from _____________________where
they had been entrenched since 1830.
3.06 QUESTION/ANSWER (pp. 80-81)
• 5. Britain sought to build a _________________________from
_________________________to
_________________________that would span their African
Empire.
• 6. The British and French shared financial control over
_________________________until the French were edged out
in the 1870s and 1880s. The British claimed it as a protectorate
in 1882.
3.08 DATING (pp. 82-85)
3.08 DATING (pp. 82-85)
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 1. Evelyn Baring’s title was…
• the first Earl of Cromer.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 2. He was the first British Commissioner of…
• the Egyptian Public Debt office.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 3. After Egypt became a British colony in 1882,
he became the…
• British Agent and Consul General.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 4. Egyptians disliked several things about
Cromer including…
• his autocratic ways and willingness to
subordinate the interests of Egypt for those of
Britain.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 5. Cromer’s primary agricultural objective
was…
• promoting the growth of Egyptian cotton and
providing British industries with raw materials.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 6. After his death he was called the…
• “Maker of Modern Egypt”.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 7. In 1882, Cromer called the class of pure
Egyptians “ignorant” since they…
• had been a subject race for so many centuries.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 8. Cromer called the foreign occupation of
Egypt…
• “inevitable” or at least “nearly inevitable”.
3.09 FINISH THE SENTENCE (pp. 83-84)
My name is Earl. Each of the following sentences about
the Earl of Cromer needs to be completed.
• 9. The question Cromer addressed in his
article is whether…
• Great Britain was the best power to control
Egypt.
STOP.

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