Japan returns to Isolation GPS Standards • SSWH11 The students will investigate the political and social changes in Japan and in China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE. – A. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rules; include how Oda Nobunaga laid the ground work for the subsequent Tokugawa rulers and how Kangxi came to rule for such a long period in China. – B. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure of Japan and China. Essential Question • How did the social structure in Japan differ from the social structure in China? • How did Oda Nobunaga lay the ground work for Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan? Feudalism in Japan • “Warring States”- time in Japanese’s history • Samurai- seized control of old feudal estates. Offered peasants protection in return for loyalty. • Daimyo: Warrior chieftains, became lords in a new kind of Japanese feudalism. – Similar to European feudalism. Oda Nobunaga • Brutal and ambitious daimyo who defeated his rivals and seized the imperial capital Kyoto in 1568. • Motto= “Rule the empire by force”. • First to use firearms effectively in Japan • Was not able to unify Japan. • Seppuku= the ritual suicide of a samurai Toyotomi Hideyoshi • Nobunaga’s best general- continued leader’s mission. • Set out to destroy the daimyo that remained hostile. • Combined brute force with political alliances, he controlled most of the country. • Eventually conquered both Korea and China. Tokugawa Ieyasu • Completed the unification of Japan. • He became the sole ruler = Shogun. • Moved the capital to Edo(small fishing village) became the city of Tokyo. • Tamed the daimyo by setting up an “alternate attendance policy”. = restoring centralized government to Japan. • Founded the Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa Shogunate • Held power in Japan until 1867 • Shoguns followed Ieyasu advice: “ Take care of the people. Strive to be virtuous. Never neglect to protect the country.” • Brought welcome into Japan Life in Tokugawa Japan • Stability, prosperity, and isolation under Tokugawa shoguns. • Farmers produced more food and population rose. • Merchants and wealthy prospered. • Majority of peasants were heavily taxed • Japanese culture spread Society in Tokugawa Japan • Emperor had the top rank(figurehead). • Shogun- military commander- was the actual ruler. • Daimyo- powerful samurai • Samurai warriors came next. • Peasants and artisans. • Merchants were at the bottom but moved their way up as the economy suspended. Society in Tokugawa Japan • Peasant farmers bore main tax burden. • Shift from rural to urban societies. • Women found jobs in entertainment, textile, manufacturing, and publishing. • Most women worked in the fields, managed the household, cared for children, and obeyed their husband without question. Culture in Tokugawa Shogunate • Traditional culture strived • Plays/dramas based on ancient warriors and their courage in battle. • Hung paintings that showed scenes from classical literature. • Haiku- 5-7-5 Syllable, 3 line verse poetry, this presented images rather than ideas. • Kabuki= theater Trade/Technology • Portuguese hoped to get involved with trade in China and Southeast Asia. • Brought: clocks, eyeglasses, tobacco, firearms, and other items from Europe. • Daimyo welcomed them and their cannons and muskets – Purchased weapons from the Portuguese and soon began their own production. Christian Missionaries • Christian missionaries began arriving in Japan, came along with trade. • Missionaries were changing traditional Japanese beliefs and sometimes involved themselves in local politics. • Christian Rebels started un up rise against the shogunate- decided Christianity was the root of the uprising. Japan in Isolation • Persecution of Christians was part of an attempt to control foreign ideas. – • “closed country policy”. • Nagasaki- remained open port to Dutch and Chinese merchants. • Japanese were forbidden to leave for fear of bringing back foreign ideas.