East Asia and Tokugawa

Review: Mongolia
Who were the Mongols:
A Nomadic herding group- great horsemen
What did they do:
Rallied to take over most of Asia, including
China and Russia
What technologies did they adopt/develop:
Compound Bow, Stirrup, cannon and
Gunpowder (Golden Eagles)
Who were important Mongols:
Genghis Khan and Kublai Khan
The Mongols who took over Russia were known as the:
The Golden Horde
The Pax Mongolia resulted in…
More Trade along the Silk Road resulting in
cultural diffusion but also the Black Death
East Asia
Chinese Dynasties
Two of the most influential of the Chinese
Dynasties were the Tang and Song Dynasties
These dynasties were important in
developing China’s culture prior to the
Mongol invasions.
The Tang Dynasty controlled most of Vietnam,
Korea and Tibet. The areas they controlled
remained independent but had to pay tribute.
The Song Dynasty replaced the Tang until the
Mongols over ran China in 1279
Tang and Song
The Tang and Song adopted the Confucian belief in
Social order, duty and proper behavior.
They continued the use of the Civil Service Exam, which
allowed only the educated rich to take part in the
Society was rigid (unchanging) during these dynasties:
Gentry (Nobles)
Tang/Song Accomplishments
Grand Canal- connected North and South
China for trade and transportation. It is
roughly the distance from Rome to Paris.
(over 1,104 miles long!!)
Increased foreign trade and a created paper
currency (money)
Art developed to include calligraphy, pagoda
buildings and porcelain
“A shrimp Among Whales”- Korea is a tiny nation next to the giant China and
Korea is in the North East of China and
they are separated by mountains and the
Yalu River
Korea is a Peninsula with many
The peninsula points towards Japan,
making it the perfect cultural bridge to
spread culture from China and Korea to
Korea, China and Confucius
Korea sees themselves as the ‘younger brother’ to
China and accepted help in their development.
Many ideas of government, Buddhism and the Civil
Service exams passed to Korea.
Though the Koreans adopt many ideas from China
they reject the complicated Chinese Writing style.
They developed their own writing called hangul. The
Hangul made it easier to learn and caused Korea’s
Literacy rate to soar.
Japan geography
-Archipelago east of Korea
-non-farmable mountains
-seas protect and isolate Japan
-Part of Asia though off the mainland
Part of the Ring of Fire, a section of the
earth subject to frequent earthquakes
and volcanic eruptions.
Earthquake Tsunami
In the Ring of Fire, sometimes the earthquakes
occur under the water, and resulting in a
Tsunami, or large tidal waves.
In 2011, a large Earthquake occurred off the
coast of Japan. That Earthquake resulted in a
Tsunami which killed thousands of Japanese.
Ancient Japan
Japan’s mountains made it difficult to
unite (Think about Greece’s city states)
Different areas were controlled by clans,
known as Uji. This a decentralized
There was no unifying force in Japan,
politically or religious.
Most Japanese practiced a form of Shinto,
or nature Worship
Shinto is based on worship of Nature. The
Japanese believe in harmony between living spirits.
Nature spirits are known as Kami
Unlike other religions, Shinto never spread beyond
Japan, but can be compared to animism.
Shinto declines when Buddhism arrives in Japan
around 500 CE
Cultural Bridge: Korea
Japan owes much of its development to cultural diffusion from
China, which passed through Korea, the Cultural Bridge. Though
Japan receives many ideas from China, they will adapt them to their
own needs.
-Japanese travelled to
China to study Chinese
-Japanese capital
modeled after China’s
-Adopt the food, dress
and language from
-tea ceremony, music,
dance styles, etc are
The Japanese STOP
travelling to China
-Keep some Chinese
-Japanese artists
develop art that focus
on Nature’s Force
-Change the Chinese
writing system to make
it easier
Cultural Diffusion
PagodaCurved roofs at
each story
(but added Kana)
Wood Block
prints- cheap art
for commoners
Zen Buddhism
Zen Buddhism spread from China to Japan
through the cultural Bridge= ________
Zen Buddhists focus on reaching enlightenment
through meditation ]
Zem Buddhists don’t focus on holy scripture,
rituals or sacraments. Instead they use meditation
to reach a sudden and inspirational breakthrough.
Today there are approximately 9.5 million Zen
Buddhists in Japan and another several million in
the United States.
Japan Selective Culture
Despite the many ideas, beliefs and
technologies that the Japanese adopted
from China, there were several items they
did not adopt.
For example, the Japanese shunned the
Civil Service Exam, and instead kept the
practice of giving important government
positions to the family members. Father to
son hand down.
Japan’s Feudalism
Japan’s Feudal system was very like Europe’s
because it kept rigid social structures, created
social order and was a form of protection.
At the top of society was a weak Emperor, with
little real power.
The Shoguns were next, and were powerful
military leaders.
Followed by the daimyo, or nobles.
The peasants were the largest of the classes, and
below them were the merchants.
Merchants were the bottom of society because
they made money off of the work of others.
Japanese Feudal system
Japanese Samurai
The samurai were the warriors of Japan. They swore
allegiance to their daimyo, and did not fear death.
All samurai followed the code of Bushido. This was a
code of conduct, translated as the ‘way of the
All Samurai strove for honor, bravery, and absolute
loyalty. If they violated Bushido they were expected
to commit Seppuku, a ritual suicide.
Bushido and Chivalry
Bushido and Chivalry were codes of moral
conduct for the warrior class.
Bushido stressed Honor, loyalty and Bravery
Chivalry stressed loyalty, respect to women and
proper fighting.
The Code of Bushido was more successful in
controlling the Samurai than the code of
Chivalry for the European Knights
Mongol Invasions
In the 1200s the Mongols had taken China,
and quickly spread to their other territories.
However, on their attempts to take over the
Mongols encountered Typhoons. The
Typhoons destroyed the Mongol fleets.
The Japanese said the Kamikaze (divine
Winds) saved them from the Mongols
Tokugawa Shogunate
Most of Japan was ruled by the Feudal
system and small but powerful Daimyo.
In 1603 Tokugawa Ieyasu took over and
gained control over most of the
Japanese Archipelago.
This marks the first unified Japan.
Tokugawa Shogunate 1603-1868
Attempted to end the wars between
feudal daimyo. The Shogun forced the
nobles to live in the capital city of Edo
every other year. Their wives and children
lived there permanently.
Daimyo could not repair their castles,
marry or leave without permission.
Laws were passed to keep the social order
rigid, and unchanging.
Despite strict social order the economy under
the Tokugawa Shoguns improved greatly.
Time of peace allowed the farmers to focus on
agriculture and develop better farming
techniques and technology.
Peace also meant more internal __________
Despite an increase in trade, the merchants
were kept low in society, why?
Tokugawa Isolation
The most important act taken by the
Tokugawa Shogunate was the isolation of
Japan cut itself off from trade with other
people and cultures, they only allowed
limited trade for supplies with China and
Japan would be isolated for over 300
Korea greatly influenced the development
of early Japan by
1)Acting as a bridge for ideas from China
2)Providing Japan with the technology for
3)Serving as a barrier against Chinese
4)Protecting Japan from early foreign
In Japan between 1603 and 1868 the most
notable action taken by the Tokugawa
Shogunate was the
1) Military conquest of China
2) Development of extensive trade with the
3) Formation of cultural links with Europe
4) Virtual isolation of the country from the
outside world
The code of Bushido of the Japanese
Samurai is the most similar to
1) Belief in reincarnation and karma of
2) Practice of chivalry by European knights
3) Teachings of Judaism
4) Theory of natural rights of the
Enlightenment writers
Which is a characteristic of a Feudal
1. Rapid social change
2. High literacy rate
3. industrial-based economy
4. Rigid class structure
A valid generalization about early Japanese
culture is that Japan
1. Had a strong influence on the development
of culture in Korea
2. Spread Shinto throughout Asia
3. Maintained a uniquely individual culture
while borrowing much from other cultures
4. Imported almost all of its cultural ideas
from China, resulting in nearly identical
Tsunami 2011

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