China and Japan

Report
China
and
Japan
SSWH11 Students will investigate political and social changes in Japan and in
China from the seventeenth century CE to mid-nineteenth century CE.
a. Describe the policies of the Tokugawa and Qing rulers; include Oda Nobunaga and Kangxi.
b. Analyze the impact of population growth and its impact on the social structure.
Important Dates to Know
• Ming China 1368-1644
• The Manchus and Qing China 1644-1800
• The Tokugawa Shogunate 1600 – 1800
Qing Dynasty
• Founded by the Manchus, a non Chinese
people
• In the Ming period the Manchus had lived
in communities in Manchuria (modern
day northeastern China)
• Hunters, farmers, and fishermen
• Banners- Units of the Qing army,
composed of soldiers, their families, and
slaves
Kangxi
• Reigned from 1661-1722; perhaps the
greatest ruler in Chinese history
• Could speak, read, and write Chinese
• Firmly believed the Manchus had a
legitimate claim to the Mandate of
Heaven
• Toured areas where Ming support had
been the highest; gave an exam to
compile the official history of the Ming
Dynasty
Policies of the Qing Rulers
• Tried to maintain their cultural
distinctness
• Brought Chinese into the imperial
administration
• Ordered all men to adopt Manchu dress
& hairstyles
• Restored peace & prosperity
• Under Kangxi, the efforts of Christian
missionaries reached its height
Economic Changes
• Between 1500 & 1800 China remained
mostly agricultural
• 85% of the people were small farmers
• Major Increase in population due to long
period of peace & stability, improvements
in food supply, and faster growing
species of rice increased the food supply
• Increased population meant less land for
each family
Continued Economic
Changes…
• Steady growth in manufacturing and
increased trade between provinces
• Under Qing confined European traders to
a small island outside Guangzhou
• In 1793, the emperor wrote to King
George III that China had no need of
your country’s manufactures… the
Chinese would later pay for their rejection
of the British
Class work
Page 494 (4-7)
Tokugawa Japan
• At the end of the 15th century, Japan was
in chaos.
• Daimyo, heads of noble families
controlled lands and warred with their
neighbors
• Process of unification began in the late
16th century with three powerful political
figures
3 Powerful Leaders
1. Oda Nobunaga – began process of
unification; Seized the capital of Kyoto
2. Toyotomi Hideyoshi
Located his capital at Osaka
3. Tokugawa Ieyasu
The daimyo of Edo (modern Tokyo) took
control of Japan and took the title of
shogun in 1603
Tokugawa Rule
• Set out to establish control of the feudal
system
• Long period of peace- known as the
Great Peace was brought about by
Tokugawa rule
• The samurai who had served the daimyo
ceased to be a warrior class
Economic Changes
• Under the Tokugawa, trade & industry
began to flourish as never before
• A Japanese merchant class emerged
• Many peasants were forced to become
tenants or work as hired help
Social Changes
• Class system became rigid
• Intermarriage between classes was
forbidden
• Role of women became more restricted
• Parents arranged marriages
• Women who did not meet the
expectations of her husband or his family
would be divorced

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