Amnesty International - Ruhr

Report
The MAREM project:
Greece group
Different views of collective actors on refugees in Greece
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
1
Table of content
1. Introduction
2. Research Question
3. State of the art
4. Data
5. Research Results
6. Conclusion
7. References
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
2
Introduction
Population: about 11 Mio.
Area: about 132.000 km²
Unemployment rate: 27,3 % (2013)
History of migration: With the collapse of the Soviet Union Greece became a
receiving country for many people from the East. It is considered as the
eastern gate of Europe.
Government:
 President of Greece : Karolos Papoulias ( Panhellenic Socialist Movement)
( since 2005)
 Prime Minister: Antonis Samaras ( New Democracy) (since 2012)
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
3
Introduction
National migration policy: Greek migration policy is conform to EU
guidlines. Up to 2010 the procedure has been regulated by
Presidential Decrees. And since 2011 there is a new law (“law 3907”)
assigning the creation of 13 Asylum Services
Asylum and new asylum applicants: 8.225 (2013)
Final descisions on applications (2013) :
 Total number of decisions: 3900
 Rejected: 2990
 Total positive decisions: 910
Most important countries of origin: Afghanistan, Syria, Iran, Iraq, Somalia, Eritrea,
Congo, Pakistan, Bangladesh
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
4
Research Question
How do the views of the different types of
organizations differ from each other
concerning the situation of refugees in
Greece ?
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
5
State of the art
1. Why Greece is not a Safe Host Country for Refugees - Achilles Skordas and
Nicholas Sitaropoulos, Journal of Refugee Studies (2005) 18 (3): 299-318.
2. Modern Greek Asylum Policy and Practice in the Context of the Relevant
European Developments – Nicholas Sitaropoulos, Journal of Refugee
Studies (2000) 13 (1): 105-117.
3. Refugee welfare in Greece: towards a remodeling of the responsibilityshifting paradigm? – Nicholas Sitaropoulos, Critical Social Policy (2002) 22
(3): 436-455.
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
6
Data
 Expert Interviews with 5 NGO´s (Aitima, Hellenic Migration Policy Institute
(IMEPO), Amnesty International, Ecumenical refugee program (ERP), Social
Center)
 Expert Interview with one police man
 Expert Interview with an university professor
 Expert Interview with a social organisation (Afghan Community)
 Narrative interviews with two refugees in Athens
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
7
Data
Characteristics Organization
Norms/values
(religious, political,
human rights etc.)
Actor types
Dominant
issue (only
on A&R or
multiple)
Field of
legitimation
(regional,
local,
national,
EU, global)
Internal/balanced
/external logics
(resources)
Officialexecutive
actors
Police
Protection of the multiple
order in the
state
national
external
A&R-related
NGOs
Aitima
ERP
Social Center
Afghan
Community
Amnesty
International
Support
Religious
Political/support
Support
multiple
A&R
multiple
multiple
regional
national
regional
regional
external
external
internal
Internal
human rights
multiple
global
balanced
IMEPO (first
governmental,
now NGO)
Scientific
multiple
national
balanced
Scientific
organizations
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
8
Research question
How do the views of the different types of
organizations differ from each other
concerning the situation of refugees in
Greece ?
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
9
Research results
IMEPO:
“ You know the law from the EU says that we can not keep them even if we can. Only for
1 year and a half, not more (…) so it is also not possible to sent these people back to their
countries. This problem belongs to the EU, because you have to keep your borders safe,
but how is it possible to do that. If we try to stop them outside our borders, then we have
a problem with the Geneva … Refugees. We have to give them the right to enter in our
country, to seek asylum, to examine if they have the right to take the refugee status or
not, and then to send them back. But if they are already in the country it is impossible
for us to send them back so they stay here.”
“First, to stop the new incomers, second- to try to help the people who are already here,
maybe also share them with the other European countries, of course based on the
economical situation and the total population of each country, and help them to become
legal, and third one- to change some of the law and the policy about the migration issues.
We have to accept that the EU are not 27 separated countries, but that we are together
with this problem.”
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
10
Research results:
IMEPO:
 IMEPO suggests to close all borders, but gives the responsibility to the European
Union. This organization appoints to the legal procedure of taking refugees and asylum
seekers. A bureaucratic solution with a procedure which sends people after a while
back.
 IMEPO appoints on a change in the European and national laws of migrants.
 Burden sharing: “We have to accept that the EU is not 27 separated countries, but that
we are together in this problem.”
 Rational and mathematical solution for burden sharing because of the comparison of
the economical status of each European Country. (The states with high welfare should
take more refugees and asylum seekers than e.g. Greece.)
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
11
Research results
Amnesty International :
“We have to understand that people and government, that migration does happen and
there is no way to stop it. We need to approve the human rights“. […] “The other problem
is the access to asylum, it doesn't exist. The process is too long, they do not have access
to lawyers and translators, across Europe.“
 Amnesty Internationals focus is on human rights and from their perspective the
asylum procedure is unfair
 The work of Amnesty International is more depended on the governmental level
 Amnesty International Greece said, that they get many calls from detention centers
because of conditions there
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
12
Research results
Social Center:
“It's the way, they do not want to stop the problem, they need to keep a
balance, a balance means, if they want to solve the problems. […] first they
need to stop giving money for this detention centers. Because, why they give
this? Because the European Countries get preferred with this situation. […] it's
the aim, to not let the people come to the rest of Europe. For this they
created Schengen, Dublin 1,2 &3, […] it is easier to come from Turkey to
Greece, than from Greece to Italy.”
 Associated with the left-wing political background of this situation, the
Social Center explains that this system works because of the “bureaucratic
barrier” which was made by the Dublin conventions and Schengen, about
asylum seekers and refugees from the (economic) wealth in the Northern
European Countries
 The situation in the detention centers is for the Social Center the most
important issue
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
13
Research results
Aitima:
“Europe should … create a system which provides for fair distribution of people”
“ […]because now there is a law saying that if Greece people can do the same job
asylum seekers cannot get a working permit. So on the one hand they don´t get any
benefit and on the other they cannot work[…]”
 Also explaining the problem of the access to the labour market for refugees and
asylum seekers, of course associated with the situation after the economic collapse
in Greece in 2009
 Government does not pay for the asylum seekers and refugees, also no access to
the labour market.
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
14
Conclusion
Similarities:
- Opinion:
The situation of the refugees in Greece is relative bad
- Explanation: Lack of (financial) governmental support and unavailability of work permit
- Solution:
Fair-minded allocation of asylum seekers in whole Europe
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
15
Conclusion
Differences:
 IMEPO: Supporting the idea of closing the borders. Bureaucratic solution
for this problem. Demands a change in laws (for more regulated asylum
procedure).
 Amnesty International: Working on governmental level with a appeal to the
human rights
 Social Center: Radical criticism on the Dublin Convention, the Schengenarea and the laws made by European Union.
 Aitima: Supports a fair distribution of asylum seekers and refugees. Also
criticizes the detention centers. European Union should change the system.
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
16
Conclusion
All NGOs and interview partners explained, that this is not a Greek problem but an
European problem. All interview partners have an opinion, that Dublin 1,2,3 is not ensuring
a fair procedure of taking asylum seekers and refugees. They feel forsaken by the European
Union in how to deal with the migration of asylum seekers and refugees.
IMEPO was the only organization which defines this problem on economics and statistics.
The other organizations refer to a solution which includes regard for human rights and
a direct appeal to stop this systematic detention of people.
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
17
References
 Achilles Skordas and Nicholas Sitaropoulos, 2005: Why Greece is not a
Safe Host Country for Refugees. In: Journal of Refugee Studies Volume
18, Number 3, pp. 299-318.
 European Migration Network – Country overview Greece
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/home-affairs/what-wedo/networks/european_migration_network/index_en.htm (25.06.2014)
 Eurostat
http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/eurostat/home/
(25.06.2014)
 Nicholas Sitaropoulos, 2002: Refugee welfare in Greece: towards a
remodeling of the responsibility-shifting paradigm?. In: Critical Social
Policy, Volume 22, Number 3, pp. 436-455.
 Nicholas Sitaropoulos, 2000: Modern Greek Asylum Policy and Practice in
the Context of the Relevant European Developments. In: Journal of
Refugee Studies, Volume 13, Number 1, pp. 105-117.
 UNHCR – official website http://www.unhcr.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx/home
(25.06.2014)
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
18
Greece group - Duygu Söyler, Eliz E.
Hyuseinova, Andreas Sajgaschew, Jolke
Mertesacker
19

similar documents