Learning Theory Matrix

Report
Learning Theory Matrix
Leanne Suttles
12/17/2011
Behaviorist
Theory
Cognitive
Theory
Constructivist
Theory
Social Learning
Theory
Connectivism
Adult
Learning
How Does
Learning Occur?
How Does
Learning Occur?
How Does
Learning Occur?
How Does
Learning Occur?
How Does
Learning Occur?
How Does
Learning Occur?
What Factors
influence learning?
What Factors
influence learning?
What Factors
influence learning?
What Factors
influence learning?
What Factors
influence learning?
What Factors
influence learning?
What is the role of
memory?
What is the role of
memory?
What is the role of
memory?
What is the role of
memory?
What is the role of
memory?
What is the role of
memory?
How does transfer
occur?
How does transfer
occur?
How does transfer
occur?
How does transfer
occur?
How does transfer
occur?
How does transfer
occur?
What types of
learning are best
explained by this
theory?
What types of
learning are best
explained by this
theory?
What types of
learning are best
explained by this
theory?
What types of
learning are best
explained by this
theory?
What types of
learning are best
explained by this
theory?
What types of
learning are best
explained by this
theory?
How is technology How is technology How is technology How is technology How is technology How is technology
used for learning in used for learning in used for learning in used for learning in used for learning in used for learning in
your industry?
your industry?
your industry?
your industry?
your industry?
your industry?
Behaviorism: Learning is “changes in either the form or
frequency of observable behavior (Ertmer & Newby, 1993).”
(Byrne,
2011)
Learning occurs when
•a proper response
follows a specific
stimulus.
•The response must be
observable.
Associations are made
with consequences
and reinforcements.
•the instructor is
responsible for
learning to occur. (Byrne,
How Does Learning Occur?
2011)
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Behaviorism: What Factors Influence Learning?
A Stimulus is presented. If a proper Response is given, then
learning occurs. When a response is followed by reinforcement,
the response is likely to occur again. (Byrne, 2011)
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Memory is not
addressed in
Behaviorism, because
it is not observable.
(Byrne, 2011)
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Behaviorism: How Does Transfer Occur?
•Transfer
is the
result of
generalizations.
•The learner must be
presented with
situations that
involve identical or
similar features.
(Pearson, 2010)
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Behaviorism
(Pearson, 2011)
Discrimination
• Recalling facts
Generalizations
What types of
learning are
best explained
by
Behaviorism?
• Defining and illustrating
concepts
Associations
• Applying explanations
Chaining
• Automatically performing a
specified feature
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Drill and Practice
(Green, 09)
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Cognitivism:
How Does Learning
Occur?
•Mental
Activity: Internal
coding and structuring by
the learner
•Change
occurs in state of
knowledge (Gunderson, 2009)
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Cognitivism: What factors influence learning?
Environmental
Practice
conditions
with corrective
feedback
Processes
of mental planning,
goal-setting, and
organizational strategies
The
way learners attend to,
code, transform, rehearse, store
and retrieve information
Learners’
thoughts, beliefs,
attitudes, and values (Peggy A.
Ertmer, 1993)
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Cognitivism: What is the Role of Memory?
Information
The
is organized and stored in a meaningful manner
Learner needs to relate new information to prior knowledge (Peggy A. Ertmer, 1993)
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Cognitivism: How Does Transfer Occur?
Transfer occurs when the learner understands how to
apply knowledge in different contexts (Peggy A. Ertmer, 1993)
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What Types of Learning
are Best Explained by
Cognitivism?
Complex
•reasoning
•problem-solving
•information
processing
Communicate & Transfer knowledge in an efficient manner:
•simplify
•standardize
: analyze- decompose- simplify into basic building blockseliminate irrelevant information (Peggy A. Ertmer, 1993)
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•Arrange practice with feedback so new information is effectively and
efficiently assimilated or accommodated with the learner’s cognitive structure
•Webs give students immediate feedback according to the information being
requests. Students are able to express ideas in their own words thereby
allowing them to connect assimilate the information according to their own
cognitive structure
oConnect new information to prior knowledge
oExample: K-W-L charts allow students to make personal and
meaningful connections to their prior experience
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Constructivism:
How Does Learning Occur?
Learning is an
active process of
creating meaning
from different
experiences.
(Kim, 2001)
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Constructivism: What Factors
Influence Learning?
The Learner
Learning Environment
(Kim, 2001)
(Kim, 2001)
Ability to
construct
knowledge
Memory
Ability to
connect new
information
to prior
knowledge
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Constructivism: How Does Transfer Occur?
(Abbot, 2010)
ability to
process
knowledge
connect to
prior
experiences
Transfer
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What Types of Learning are best explained by Constructivism?
(Abbot, 2010)
LearnerCentered
Instruction
Creating
meaning and
knowledge
Constructivism:
Types of
Learning
Reflect and
make
connections
with prior
knowledge
Hypothesize,
question,
investigate,
imagine,
invent
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Communication
Create and Record Information
Access and Retrieve Information
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Social Learning Theory: How Does
Learning Occur? (Pearson, 2010)
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Attention
Retention
Motor
Reproduction
Motivation
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Memory
Modeling
Observation
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The Learner
makes
generalizations
The Learner
recognizes
similarities
of the new
stimuli
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Social Skills
Athletic Skills
Appropriate Social & Emotional Behavior
Attitudes
Values & Morality
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


The use of technology, within the Social
Learning Theory, is a Constructivist approach.
Learners construct meaning through
experience.
Learning is…



Interactive
Authentic
Learner-Centered (Pearson, 2010)
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Interpersonal
Social
Technological
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Variety & Extent of
Learning Networks
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DISCERNING THE NETWORK
ORDERING THE CHAOS
(BEACH, 2009)
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Nurture
Current
Network
Add to
Maintain
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Connectivism: What Types of Learning are
Best Explained by This Theory?
Analysis & Problem Solving
(Beach, 2009)
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Connectivism: How is Technology Used for
Learning in Your Industry? (Beach, 2009)
Interactive
Learning
Collaboration
Research
Information
Management
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Adult Learning: How Does Learning Occur?
(Conlan, 2003)
Connectivism
Self-Directed
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Purpose of Learning
Relevance of Subject Matter
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Adult Learning:
Memory
Adults relate new
information to
prior knowledge
(Conlan, 2003)
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Adult Learning: Transfer
Adults
apply
knowledge
through
experience
(Conlan, 2003)
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Higher Order Skills
Reasoning
Problem-Solving
Information Processing
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Interactive
Learning
Collaboration
Research
Authentic
Learning
LearnerCentered
Learning
High Quality
Learning
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Abbot, L. (2010). Social Learning Theory. Retrieved 12 1, 11, from TeachNet:
http://teachnet.edb.utexas.edu/~Lynda_abbot/Social.html
Beach, S. (2009, 8). The Fabric of Community- The Key to Transforming
Education. Retrieved 12 6, 11, from 21st Century Learning :
http://21stcenturylearning.typepad.com/blog/2009/08/the-fabric-ofcommunity-the-key-to-transforming-education.html
Byrne, D. B. (2011). Behaviorism. Retrieved 12 5, 2011, from Electronic
Educational Village: Long Island University:
http://eev.liu.edu/know_base/behavior.htm
Conlan, J. G. (2003). Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and
technology. Retrieved November 29, 2011, from Adult Learning:
http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Adult_Learning#Biogr
aphy_-_Malcolm_Knowles
Cook, J. (2010). A Constructivist Approach to Online Course Design to Enhance
Interaction and Learner Motivation in K-12 . Retrieved 12 6, 11, from ED Tech
Boise State University:
https://sites.google.com/a/boisestate.edu/edtechtheories/aconstructivist-approach-to-online-course-design-to-enhance-interactionand-learner-motivation-in-k-12
Davis, C. E.-B. (2008). Connectivism. Retrieved 11 28, 2011, from Emerging
perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology:
http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Connectivism
Gray, A. (97, 7). Contructivist Teaching and Learning . Retrieved 12 6, 11, from
Contructivist Teaching and Learning :
http://saskschoolboards.ca/research/instruction/97-07.htm
Green, D. M. (09, 7). Behaviorism and Technology in the Modern Classroom.
Retrieved from A Teacher Effects Eternity:
http://derrickmgreen.wordpress.com/2009/07/07/behaviorism-andtechnology-in-the-modern-classroom/
Grow, G. O. (1994, 8). Serving the Strategic Reader: Reader Response Theory
and It's Implications for the Teaching of Writing. Retrieved 12 5, 11, from
Qualitative Division of the Association for Educators in Journalism and
Mass Media: http://www.longleaf.net/ggrow
Gunderson, G. (2009). Cognitive Approaches to Learning. Retrieved 12 12, 11,
from Cognitive Approaches to Learning:
http://sites.wiki.ubc.ca/etec510/Cognitive_Approaches_to_Learning#Ho
w_Learning_Occurs
Kim, B. (2001). Social Constructivism. Retrieved November 22, 2011, from A
Review of Social Constructivism:
http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Social_Constructivism
#Sorting_Out_Variations_on_the_Terms_.22Constructionism.22_and_Con
structivism.22
Orey, M. (2001). Information Processing. Retrieved 12 12, 11, from
Emerging perspectives on learning, teaching, and technology. Retrieved:
http://projects.coe.uga.edu/epltt/index.php?title=Information_processi
ng
Pearson. (2010). Learning Theories and Instruction. In Pearson, Learning
Theories and Instruction (p. 162). New York: Pearson Custom Publishing.
Peggy A. Ertmer, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, Cognitivism, Constructivism:
Comparing Critical Features from an Instructional Design Perspective.
Performance Improvement Quarterly , 50-72.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.19378327.1993.tb00605.x/abstract

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