What is symbiosis? What are the different kinds of symbiosis? What are some examples of symbiosis? Symbiosis What it means: Two organisms that live together Temporarily or for a longer time At least one of the organisms benefits from the relationship Mutualism Commensalism Parasitism both organisms benefit one organism benefits one organism benefits one organism is unaffected one organism is harmed Commensalism Organism One Organism Two Mutualism Organism One Organism Two Parasitism Organism One Organism Two Symbiotic Relationships Commensalismone species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex. orchids on a tree Epiphytes: A plant, such as a tropical orchid or a bromeliad, that grows on another plant upon which it depends for mechanical support but not for nutrients. Also called aerophyte, air plant. Symbiotic Relationships Commensalismone species benefits and the other is neither harmed nor helped Ex. polar bears and cyanobacteria Symbiotic Relationships Parasitismone species benefits (parasite) and the other is harmed (host) Parasite-Host relationship Symbiotic Relationships Parasitismparasite-host Ex. lampreys, leeches, fleas, ticks,tapeworm Symbiotic Relationships Mutualismbeneficial to both species Ex. cleaning birds and cleaner shrimp Symbiotic Relationships Mutualismbeneficial to both species Ex. lichen In all symbiotic relationships one of the species (organisms) is always benefitted from the relationship, but what happens to the other species (organism)? Type of relationship Commensalism Parasitism Mutualism Species harmed Species benefits Species uneffected Identify the Relationship Explain how the cow and chicken exhibit commensalism in this cartoon. Acacia Plant & Ants The ants lay eggs on acacia tree so they get a nice safe place for their eggs. The acacia covers the infected area with brown flesh (called a gall.) The plant has to use valuable resources to create the gall. What symbiotic relationship is this? parasitism Anemone & Anemone Fish This fish lives its entire adult life among the tentacles of a bulb- tentacle sea anemone. Anemone fish do not get stung by the anemone as would most other fish so they get protection from predators. The fish often drop food scraps which the anemones can eat. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism Boxer Crab & Anemones This Boxer Crab carries a pair of stinging anemones in its claws, which it uses to defend itself from predators. The anemones get to move around which increases their food supply. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism Shark & Remora commensalism The remora attaches itself to the shark and saves energy since it doesn’t have to swim, and it gets to snack on the sharks kills. The shark doesn’t get anything. What symbiotic relationship is this? Emperor Shrimp & Sea Cucumber This tiny emperor shrimp is riding along on the back of a sea cucumber (a long worm-like starfish relative) while it crawls along a sandy bottom. The shrimp gets to travel around under the protection of its much larger partner, and the sea cucumber doesn't seem to mind. What symbiotic relationship is this? commensalism Moray Eel & Cleaner Fish This moray eel has a small fish cleaning between its teeth. The eel gets a clean mouth while the cleaner fish gets a nice meal. mutualism What symbiotic relationship is this? Cattle & Cattle Egrets As these cattle walk around eating grass they stir up lots of insects. The egrets hang around and get a yummy meal of insects. What symbiotic relationship is this? commensalism Clown Fish & Anemone This clown fish swims in the anemone and gets protection, since its predators will get stung. The anemone is unaffected. What symbiotic relationship is this? commensalism Antelope & Ox Bird This ox bird hangs out on the antelope and gets a delicious meal of bugs living on the antelope. The antelope gets rid of parasites. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism Loa Loa Worm & Human This worm infects the human blood stream and gets a nice warm safe home there. The human may go blind or have other complications as a result. What symbiotic relationship is this? parasitism Goby and Alpheid Shrimp This alpheid shrimp (on the right) uses its strong claws like a bulldozer to create a burrow in the sand. The shrimp is nearly blind. It relies upon its partner, the sharp-eyed goby, to warn of danger. When a potential predator approaches, both animals disappear quickly into the burrow mutualism What symbiotic relationship is this? Wrasse & Batfish Can you see the two cleaner wrasses are removing parasites from a batfish? One of the wrasses has entered the gill slit of the batfish, and may even enter its mouth in search of food. The batfish gets a bath and the wrasse gets a meal. What symbiotic relationship is this? mutualism Hummingbird Moth & Flower mutualism This hummingbird moth is drinking the nectar of a flower. The flower gets pollinated (the moth brings pollen from other flowers) and the moth gets a tasty meal. What symbiotic relationship is this?