The Abyssal Zone

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The Abyssal Zone
Created by Shalynn Lee
The Abyssal Zone
What is it?
The Abyssal Zone is 1 out of the 5 pelagic
layers in the ocean. This zone contains a very
deep depth. “Abyss” comes from the Greek
word “ἄβυσσος” meaning bottomless. The
Abyssal Zone is also called Abyssopelagic, and
the Abyss.
Did you know that the depth of
the Abyssal zone is 4,000-6,000
meters below sea level? The
water in the abyssal zone is dark
that it never receives daylight. It
also has an extreme amount of
pressure underwater. Humans
have only begun to explore the
Abyssal Zone.
Pelagic Layers
As you can see, in this diagram the ocean is divided into 5 sections.
Starting near the surface of the water is the Euphotic zone and at
the bottom of the sea floor is the Hadal zone. The Abyssal Zone,
however, is located between the bathyal zone and the hadal zone. As
the water gets deeper, it becomes much darker and colder.
Here is another way to look at the depths of the 5 pelagic layers. You
can see that the water is getting deeper and deeper each time.
The Depths of the Pelagic Layers
12000
Euphotic Zone: 0-200m
Meters
10000
8000
Disphotic Zone: 2001000m
6000
4000
2000
Bathyal Zone: 1000-3000m
0
Abyssal Zone: 30006000m
Type of Zone
Hadal Zone: 6000-sea
floor
The 5 pelagic zones have many different
names
1st layer: The Epipelagic Zone /The Euphotic Zone /The
Sunlit Zone.
2nd layer: The Mesopelagic Zone /The Disphotic Zone /The
Twilight Zone.
3rd layer: The Bathypelagic Zone /The Bathyal /The Midnight
Zone.
4th layer: Abyssopelagic Zone /The Abyssal Zone /The Lower
Midnight Zone.
5th layer: Hadalpelagic Zone or The Hadal Zone.
Hydrothermal vents
In the Abyssal zone, the average water temperature is 2°C to 3°C .
However, the temperature can reach up to 464 °C when the water is
near hydrothermal vents. At that temperature, the water is far above
the boiling point, yet it doesn’t boil because of the pressure in the
water.
Organisms that live in the abyssal zone are adapted to live in the rough
environment with high pressure and living in the darkness. As you can see,
these magnificent sea creatures look much more mysterious and scary-looking
conpared to the fishes we see near the surface of the water.
Here are some examples of sea creatures that live in the Abyssal Zone.
Black Swallower
Giant Squid
Tripod Fish
Gulper eel
Angler Fish
Dumbo Octopus
There are many animals living in the
Abyssal Zone. But sadly there NO plants
found in the deeper areas of the ocean.
This is because sunlight can’t reach the
Abyssal Zone so photosynthesis cannot
occur. The ocean waters are pitch dark, so
daylight can’t be found in these areas of
the ocean.
What is a Biome?
A Biome is an area where plants and animals are
adapted to live a specific type of environment. But in this
cause, it’s the ocean.
Did you know that the Abyssal Zone biome is the largest
biome in the world? The biome covers about 60% of the
Earth’s surface.
40%
60%
1st Qtr
2nd Qtr
The Abyssal Zone is an interesting
water layer. A lot happens under the
waters where many scuba divers
cannot travel to. In fact, the deeper
areas of the ocean has almost never
been explored before. The only way
to explore very deep waters is to use
underwater robotics. Robots such as
Alvin and Jason are excellent robots
that can go deep into the ocean.
Alvin
Alvin is a robot that is specifically
used to explored very deep
waters. Alvin can plunge to a
maximum depth of 4,500 meters.
That means that Alvin was able to
cross the 3,000 meter mark
where the Abyssal Zone begins.
What’s special about Alvin is that
it is built out of titanium, which
can help it avoid being crushed
by the water pressure. In 1977,
Alvin made the first discovery of
hydrothermal vents in the Pacific
Ocean.
Jason
Jason is another underwater
robot that explores deep
into the ocean. To control
Jason, scientists can stay on
deck to guide it. Unlike Alvin,
Jason can go as deep as
6,500 meters. That means
that Jason can reach the
Hadel Zone! Jason also has
an robotic arm that can take
samples of rocks, water and
sea life.
As you can see, the Abyssal Zone
and the Hadel Zone would have
never been explored without
scientists inventing underwater
robots. We should all be thankful to
have those scientists inventing new
things everyday to make ours be
amazed.
The End
Created By: Shalynn Lee

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