Structured-and-Spontaneous-Lyric-Analysis-by-Kevin

Report
Structured and
Spontaneous Lyric Analysis:
Facilitating Effectively While
Managing “Clinical Realities”
Kevin Hahn, MT-BC
Supervising Rehabilitation Therapist
Supervising Music Therapist
Atascadero State Hospital
2
Welcome
3
Session Format
• Experiential and didactic workshop to:
▫ Identify, define, and consider
applications of “structured” and
“spontaneous” lyric analysis experiences
▫ Provide tools to entry-level MTs
to refine lyric analysis technique
▫ Practice and discuss strategies for
handling challenging moments that
require MT to be spontaneous
4
Relation to Scope of Practice
• CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)
 II-A-1. Develop a therapeutic
relationship
 II-A-5-e. Employ active listening
 II-A-5-g. Use creativity and
flexibility in meeting client’s
changing needs
5
Relation to Scope of Practice
• CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)
 II-A-5-l. Mediate problems among
clients within the session
 II-A-5-s. Apply receptive methods
 II-A-5-z. Empathize with client’s
music experience
6
Relation to Scope of Practice
• CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)
 II-A-5-aa. Observe client reactions
 III-B-1. Identify information that is
relevant to client’s treatment
process
7
Relation to Scope of Practice
• CBMT Scope of Practice (2010)
 III-B-2. Differentiate between
empirical information and
therapist’s interpretation
 III-B-3. Acknowledge therapist’s
bias and limitations in interpreting
information
8
What Brings You Here?
• I’d like to get to know you
▫ Who are you?
▫ What do you hope to gain from
this group?
 (I’ll answer, too) 
9
What Brings Me Here?
•I am here as the result of my:
▫Clinical experience
Work with ‘difficult’ populations
Internship supervisor observations
▫Interest in quality of practice issues
Personal reflections on methodology
Desire to understand approaches and
processes in lyric analysis
10
What Brings Me Here?
•I am here as the result of my:
▫Interests in research
▫Desire to connect with Western
Region
Hi 
11
A Disclaimer
•This is not the outcome of a legacy
of good scientific research
▫(As if lyric analysis isn’t hard enough
to study already…)
•This is however an attempt to
“understand” from the viewpoint of a
working clinician
12
A Disclaimer
(Continued)
•These are essentially my opinions as
supported by clinical evidence:
▫Observations of trends (practicebased evidence)
▫Critical thinking about music
therapy practice
13
A Disclaimer
(Continued)
•My ideas are fallible:
▫Would love to design the research
for you to test
▫But seriously:
Only way to achieving
EBP in music therapy is through
collaboration and communication
14
What’s the
big picture?
15
Music Therapy Methods
• Bruscia’s four methods
▫ Improvisation
▫ Re-creation
▫ Composition (creation)
▫ Receptive Experiences
Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy.
Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.
16
Receptive Methods
• MT uses live or recorded music
• Client listens and responds to
music in some capacity
Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy.
Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.
17
What’s in a Name?
• Several intervention names
▫ Lyric analysis
▫ Song discussion*
▫ Music communication
▫ Unconscious song recall
▫ Song Choice
Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy.
Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.
18
What’s in a Name?
• Several intervention names
▫ Song lyric discussion*
▫ Song sharing
▫ Music discussion
▫ Song analysis
▫ Song reminiscence
Grocke, D., & Wigram, T. (2007). Receptive methods in music therapy.
Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
19
“Lyric Analysis” and
“Song Discussion” are the
most commonly used names
in current MT literature
20
Hierarchy of Receptive Exp.
Receptive Methods in MT
External Process
Lyric
Analysis/Song
Discussion
Drawing to
music
Internal Process
Imaging
Relaxation
(Example Interventions)
Adapted from:
Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy.
Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.
21
But… Huh?
Lyric
Analysis/
Song
Discussion
Song Sharing
Song Choice
Song
Reminiscence
Music
Communication
Song Analysis
(Example of Types of
Lyric Analysis Interventions)
Unconscious
Song Recall
22
Although we have several
intervention names that
fall under lyric analysis,
their differences may seem
relatively subtle
23
Now Even More Complicated
Lyric
Analysis/
Song
Discussion
Song Sharing
Song Choice
Song
Reminiscence
Music
Communication
(Can clients
analyze
Song Analysis
free of
external
influences?)
Both based
on “here and
now”
Unconscious
Song Recall
24
(Only?) One Common Thread
• Three stages of the process:
▫ Music is chosen
▫ Music is heard or performed
▫ Music is discussed
Grocke, D., & Wigram, T. (2007). Receptive methods in music therapy.
Philadelphia, PA: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
25
Rather than investigate
these subtle differences,
what if we considered
how we approach the
lyric analysis experience?
26
27
Main Differences in Approach
Structured
• Pre-planned approach
• Example indicators:
▫ Prepared questions or
prompts
▫ Therapist selecting music
▫ Client selecting music
before session
▫ More time to prepare
supplementary materials
Spontaneous
• Responsive approach
• Example indicators:
▫ Questions prepared on
spot
▫ Therapist responds to
‘live’ choices by clients
▫ Less time (or none) to
prepare supplementary
materials
▫ Possibly less formal
structure
28
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30
(Can we?)
31
An Attempt to Understand
• How can music therapists
facilitate lyric analysis (LA)
both effectively and ethically?
• What are the components and
mechanisms involved in LA?
32
Steps Toward Defining LA
• Understanding ethical boundaries
and considerations
• Using the “Five W’s”
to formulate as
inclusive a definition
as possible
33
Integrity and Fidelity
• How music therapists strive to
facilitate as ethically as possible:
▫ AMTA Code of Ethics
▫ HIPAA
▫ Group agreements as safeguard
▫ Professional boundaries and
supervision
34
Group Agreements (ideas)
• Confidentiality
▫ How will it be implemented?
▫ When will it not? How/why?
• Respect and individual needs
▫ How to handle various preferences?
▫ Encourage clients to participate?
35
Where do we facilitate LA?
• Context affects preparation
▫ Group therapy
 Closed groups
 Open groups
▫ Individual therapy
36
Who facilitates LA?
• Music therapists
▫ Board-certified, licensed, etc.
▫ Supervised students
• Who else can facilitate LA?
• Thoughts and concerns about
other professionals and
individuals facilitating LA?
37
What positive outcomes
could occur through LA?
• Improved self-awareness
• Emotional release and growth
• Positive peer relationships
• Personal insight and fulfillment
Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy.
Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.
38
Why does LA work for clients?
• Lyric analysis as
a wheel
▫ A vehicle that
we help establish
for our clients
so they can make
progress in treatment
39
Why does LA work for clients?
• Theoretical framework of ‘ideals’
• An effective LA experience…
▫ Seeks or maintains safety
▫ Inspires hope
▫ Sets the stage for success or growth
• …allowing the client to move
forward in treatment
40
Seek/Maintain
Safety
Set Stage for
Success
Inspire Hope
Client Progress
41
What affects LA experiences?
• What external and internal
variables could affect a client’s
experience in lyric analysis?
▫ Values? Hopes? Biases? Goals?
▫ Experiences? Thoughts? Feelings?
▫ Family? Vocation? Education?
▫ Music Preference? Taste? Dislikes?
42
What affects LA experiences?
• “Psychological Processes”
▫ Identification
▫ Empathy
▫ Projection
Gardstrom, S. C., & Hiller, J. (2010). Song discussion as music psychotherapy.
Music Therapy Perspectives, 28(2), 147-156.
43
What affects LA experiences?
• Intentionally selected components
of our intervention:
▫ Music components
▫ Therapy components
▫ Music therapy components
44
What affects LA experiences?
• Intentionally selected components
of our intervention:
▫ Music components include…
 Rhythm and meter
 Melody and harmony
 Timbre and quality
 Genre and form
45
What affects LA experiences?
• Intentionally selected components
of our intervention:
▫ Therapy components include…
 Active listening and counseling skills
 Critical thinking and responding
 Awareness of therapist biases,
limitations, transference issues, etc.
46
What affects LA experiences?
• Intentionally selected components
of our intervention:
▫ Music therapy components include…
 Design of LA experience / session plan
 Blend of music/lyrics to elicit specific
intended outcomes
 Presence and presentation of materials
 Professional boundaries
47
Although we may
intentionally plan
individual components of LA,
in the MT experience
these components appear to
work in conjunction
48
Components of a LA Experience
Therapy
Music
Music
Therapy
If only it were so easy…
Desired Therapeutic
Outcomes
49
Components of a LA Experience
Therapy
We may set up the
individual components…
Music
But when the session starts,
these work in conjunction
with one another…
Music
Therapy
50
Seek/Maintain
Safety
Therapy
Music
Music
Therapy
Set Stage for
Success
Inspire Hope
Client Progress
51
How can we guide clients in LA?
• Common themes in how we can
help move clients forward
• “Tools” for lyric analysis
▫ “Rock the High Cs!” theme
 Seven “Considerations”
 Acknowledgement
52
Tools for Staying On-Task in LA
• “Seven Cs and an A”
▫ Context
▫ Congruence
▫ Contrast
▫ Conversation
▫ Censorship
▫ Confrontation
▫ Closure
▫ Acknowledgement
53
How we use our “tools” for LA
will depend on which component
of the session we are tweaking
as well as the LA approach being
utilized in the moment
54
Definitions and Examples
• Context: Awareness of variables
related to current situation
▫ Music: History of song
▫ Therapy: Client’s background, life
experiences, progress in therapy
▫ Music Therapy: Selecting
intervention to match group needs
 Helpful websites:
55
Websites for researching songs:
www.songfacts.com
www.songmeanings.net
www.snopes.com
www.wikipedia.org
56
Definitions and Examples
• Congruence: Alignment
(or nonalignment) of various parts of a
greater whole
▫ Music: Sound differs from title or words
▫ Therapy: Client behavior does not match
affect; affect does not reflect thoughts
▫ Music Therapy: Music selection does not
match what client states
 Audio Example:
57
“Wonderful” - Everclear
(Na na na na na na na)
YouTube Link
Please don't tell me everything is wonderful now
I go to school and I run and play
I tell the kids that it's all okay
I like to laugh so my friends won't know
When the bell rings I just don't wanna go home
Go to my room and I close my eyes
I make believe that I have a new life
I don't believe you when you say
Everything will be wonderful someday
58
“Wonderful” - Everclear
Promises mean everything when you're little
And the world is so big
I just don't understand how
You can smile with all those tears in your eyes
When you tell me everything is wonderful now
(Na na na na na na na)
I don't wanna hear you tell me everything is wonderful now
59
Definitions and Examples
• Contrast: Differentiation between
two or more entities
▫ Music: Different sections of songs
▫ Therapy: Emotions associated with
different behaviors
▫ Music Therapy: Feeling/descriptive
words to identify differences in songs
 Audio examples:
60
“Landslide” Two Ways
(Instrumental Solo)
Well, I've been afraid of changin'
Cause I've built my life around you
But time makes bolder
Children get older
And I'm getting older too
YouTube Link - Stevie Nicks
YouTube Link - Dixie Chicks
Well, I'm getting older too
So take this love and take it down
Yeah, and if you climb a mountain and you turn around
And if you see my reflection in the snow-covered hills
Well, the landslide brought it down
And if you see my reflection in the snow-covered hills
Well maybe...
61
Definitions and Examples
• Conversation: Flow of therapy
experience that is comfortable and
inclusive of client input
▫ Presence and openness to
experience
▫ Connecting client comments
▫ Setting the stage for clients to take
the lead in their treatment
62
Definitions and Examples
• Censorship: Intentional
suppression of ‘undesirable’ or
‘objectionable’ content
▫ Know your facility/business policies
▫ Know personal limits/boundaries
▫ Your clients know the real words 
▫ ‘Radio edits’ are not always enough
 Audio Example:
63
Rihanna – “S and M”
YouTube Link
Feels so good being bad
There’s no way I’m turning back
Now the pain is my pleasure cause nothing could measure
Love is great, love is fine
Outta box, outta line
The affliction of the feeling leaves me wanting more
Chorus
Cause I may be bad, but I’m perfectly good at it
Sex in the air, I don’t care, I love the smell of it
Sticks and stones may break my bones
But chains and whips excite me (x2)
64
Definitions and Examples
• Confrontation: Clashing of
ideals; “to face in challenge”
▫ Could be censorship in experience
▫ Raising awareness of incongruence
▫ Occurs in further stage of treatment
▫ How well do you know this client?
65
Definitions and Examples
• Closure: Sense of finality when
terminating session or experience
▫ Summarize what happened
▫ Tie ‘themes’ together across clients
▫ Don’t leave your clients “hanging”
66
Definitions and Examples
• Acknowledgement: Therapeutic
reinforcement of positive gains in
treatment
▫ Validates client experience
▫ Could be represented with music
▫ What are you acknowledging?
▫ Specificity and recency are key
67
Tools for Staying On-Task in LA
• “Seven Cs and an A”
▫ Context
▫ Congruence
▫ Contrast
▫ Conversation
▫ Censorship
▫ Confrontation
▫ Closure
▫ Acknowledgement
68
Seek/Maintain
Safety
Therapy
Music
Music
Therapy
Set Stage for
Success
Inspire Hope
Client Progress
69
Preparation
and Practice
70
Recommended Readings for
structuring LA experiences:
Gardstrom and Hiller (2010) MTP
Grocke and Wigram (2007)
71
Group Role Play
• Song will be presented
• Group will discuss elements of the
song as well as possible questions
they could prepare for a structured
lyric analysis
72
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Additional Group Processing
• What are the salient music elements?
• What are the salient text features?
• What goals or outcomes could be
measured using this song?
• What themes are present in the song?
• What populations are indicated or
contraindicated?
74
Preparation
and Practice
75
A Few Caveats
• (Especially for students, but good
reminders for ourselves as well)
▫ Unstructured LA ≠ unplanned LA
 Based on your facility/group structure;
therapist still selects guiding themes, etc.
“Primum non nocere.”
 Music therapists should “do no harm.”
76
A guiding principle for facilitating
Spontaneous LA experiences:
“Think critically,
Act clinically.”
77
Practicing Spontaneous LA
• Exposure to many types of music
and the normative culture
▫ Example: Hip-hop culture and
musical “references”
• (Continue to) educate yourself about
context of selected songs
78
Group Role Play
• Group will listen to song and
discuss possible questions and
responses
• Facilitator will give feedback and
provide possible client responses
79
“Smiling Faces Sometimes”
Undisputed Truth
YouTube Link
80
Small Group Role Play
• Split into small groups
• One person will be the therapist
• One person will be the main client
• Others will be observers
• Listen to and discuss song as it
relates to theme of “life changes”
81
“Thank U” – Alanis Morissette
YouTube Link
82
“Let the Rain” – Sara Bareilles
YouTube Link
83
Even during
structured LA experiences,
we may encounter times
that require us to be
spontaneous and flexible
84
Some “What if…?” Moments
• Song is only loosely tied to song title
• Title is only part that reflects theme
• Person is hogging the conversation
• Off-task behaviors
• Uncomfortable response to music
• Strong religious associations/group
with differing religious affiliations
85
Some “What if…?” Moments
• Song is perceived to enable behavior
• Content is more offensive than you
originally expected
• Substance abuse theme
• You don’t know what to say or do
86
Handling “What if…?” Times
• Remember to be ethical
(“Think critically, act clinically”)
• Know your boundaries
• Seek supervision
• Be genuine
87
Also- Don’t Forget Your LA Tools!
• “Seven Cs and an A”
▫ Context
▫ Congruence
▫ Contrast
▫ Conversation
▫ Censorship
▫ Confrontation
▫ Closure
▫ Acknowledgement
88
Role Play: Saying No
• Setting boundaries with a client
can be difficult or uncomfortable
• “Client” will ask therapist to play
an ‘inappropriate’ song
• “Therapist” will respond by
respectfully declining to do so
89
“Unexpected” Observations
• “Music video as literal meaning”
phenomenon
• In your own experience facilitating
spontaneous lyric analysis, what are
other issues or “unexpected”
observations you have encountered?
90
Seek/Maintain
Safety
Therapy
Music
Music
Therapy
Set Stage for
Success
Inspire Hope
Client Progress
91
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-Kevin Hahn

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