The Neanderthals Probably derived from Heidelbergensis in Northern Europe 300,000-200,000 ybp Territory: from Siberia to Iberia to the Levant Neanderthal Physics • Cold adapted: short, stocky, thick boned • 5’6’’; 176, females somewhat smaller, 20% heavier per pound relative to humans Neanderthal Physics • Faces: larger nose; higher browridge; longer, lower cranium; larger teeth and jaws Neanderthal brains • Slightly larger than human (1425cc vs. 1350) • Enlarged erectus brain • Relative parietal expansion in humans Neanderthal hunting • Varied diets, but large big game meat consumers • Cooperative hunting (100,000-50,000 ybp) Mauran, Le Borde, Combe Grenal, and La Cotte (below) • No projectile weapons; thrusting spears, close-in ambush hunting; little evidence of long-range hunting expeditions or intercept strategies • Rodeo rider injuries, tough life Neanderthal tools • Mousterian; Levollois points/flakes; more specialized than Heidelbergensis tool kit • Mostly stone; rarely bone or antler • Little evidence of innovation; procedural strategies • Hafting points onto spears • Local, little evidence of “exotic” raw material or trade Neanderthal symbolism? • Frequent use of pigments. For what purpose? Processing of hides, hunting camo; adhesives; selectivity for color suggest more than just practical • Beads; Chatelperronian controversy (borrowed from CroMagnons?) • Recent finds in Spain earlier than Hss At Cueva de los Aviones (3 peforated shells), Cueva Antón (1 shell); 50,000 ybp • Tata engravings 70,000 ybp Neanderthal social life • • • • • • Homogenous population est. 70,000 in Europe at 40,000 ybp Smaller less organized campsite Smaller hearths, possible no communal use of fire Smaller social groups; no trade; local face-to-face interactions Possibly little gender specialization; longer gestation period >12months? Burials inconclusive regarding ritual; afterlife beliefs, etc. Neanderthal language Some language but how much?