Introduction In this PowerPoint, you will learn about the spectacular, amazing Cro-Magnon who lived 40,000 years ago. You will learn about why the Cro-Magnon are one-of-a-kind. CroMagnons were the first kind of Homo Sapiens before the modern humans. Cro-Magnon were also widely known for their cave art. Now sit back, relax, and enjoy this amazing PowerPoint!!!!!! Dates and Place of Existence • Cro-Magnon lived up to 40,000 through 10,000 years ago. • They spread throughout Asia, Europe, and Africa. • Cro-Magnon crossed a land bridge during the Ice Age to get to North and South America from Asia, Europe, and Africa. They did this following their prey. • Cro-Magnon people came at the end of the Ice Age after the Neanderthals were already around.(1) • They were discovered by a man named Louis Lartet.(2) Physical Appearance • Cro-Magnon had the same shaped skulls and bodies as modern humans. • They had pointed chins and rounded brain cases. • Their eyebrows had small ridges and they had flatter foreheads. • Cro-Magnon had smaller noses and jaws than earlier humans. • Their mouths had tinier and more crowded teeth. (3) Fire was a vital part of the Cro-Magnon people’s culture. Fire was the only source of heat and light in the caves in which they lived. The fire in front of the caves kept them warm from the cold, and it also kept animals away so the Cro-Magnon were safe from attack in their homes. Fire was also used to herd animals to hunt them by driving the prey off the edge of a cliff. Fire could be used to drive animals away as well. Fire was the only means for cooking food, and it was the only source of light at night. Fire was very important to their culture (4). Shelter Cro-Magnon usually lived in caves or huts. They used large bones to build a shelter. They covered these with animal skins and stuck the skin in the ground with animal leg bones. CroMagnon were also cave-dwellers. They lived under openfaced rock overhangs. Underground caves were used for ceremonies and burials. Sometimes Cro-Magnon people made tepee-like huts to live in. They also covered these with warm fur. Long huts had many rooms, and in each room was a fire to keep warm. When Cro-Magnon traveled they lived in sturdy and portable tents.(5) Language Cro-Magnon were the first humans to have a clear speech. They were capable of getting a more advanced language. They passed down stories, traditions, and knowledge. Speaking let them work together, share what they were thinking, and organize groups to gather and hunt food. Communication helped Cro-Magnon have a better life and a stronger culture.(6) Clothing Cro-Magnon used animal hide to make their clothes . They stretched the hide to make it easy to cut and shape. Out of the hide they made dresses, tunics, pants, wraps, and other styles of clothing. They bore holes in the skin and sewed the clothes together with sinew or animal tendon and bone needles. For extra decoration, they would add on little shells, rocks, or beads. They made jewelry out of bits of eggshell, stones, shells and, fish bones.(7) Food • • • • • • • • • Cro-Magnon ate various kinds of food. Women and children gathered together fruits, vegetables, and things they could pick. Some of the things they collected were carrots, beets, onions, berries, seeds, nuts, and eggs. They preserved the food by drying them out in the sun. Sometimes they would catch small mammals in snares and nets made of sinew. Men were the hunters of the culture. The game they caught were large mammals, Wooly Rhinoceros, Mammoths, and Saber-Tooth Tigers. They used traps and bows and arrows to hunt. When they fished they used woven nets, spears, and even poison to kill the fish.(8) Daily life Men Cro-Magnon men hunted for food and meat. They had not learned how to domesticate animals. They hunted most of the day. Some times they would drive a stampede of horses off a cliff to eat their meat and use the bones. Daily life for Cro-Magnon was pretty difficult. Women and Children Cro-Magnon women collected fruits and veggies with the children. They didn’t know how to harvest crops yet. They preserved the food so it would last longer and they could save it. Daily life for them wasn’t that easy.(8) Tools and Weapons Cro-Magnon people had several types of weapons and tools. They made tools out of materials such as bones, stones, rocks, sticks, and antlers. Some of the tools they created handmade were burins, which were axe\chisel-like tools, awls, bone needles, and straight-backed knives. Hunters used to hunt, but they invented throwing sticks to get better aim and shot. Bows and arrows allowed them to have several shots at the prey they were hunting. CroMagnon people left nothing to waste.(9) Art • Cro-Magnon people were the first people to learn how to carve, paint, sculpt and use color. They mainly sculpted chubby female figures that scientists believed were totems or gods. Sculptures were made of bone, ivory, antlers, and stone. • Most of their artwork was found in caves. Their first paintings were scenes of hunting groups and animals. Few plants and people were in the paintings. They made paint by grinding rocks into powders and then mixing it in with mammal fat. Red, orange, brown, yellow, and black were the colors they made. Brushes were made from hair tied to small bones. CroMagnon were most famous for their cave paintings.(10) Religion Scientists believe that Cro-Magnon were more religious than earlier humans. They also were the first to believe in afterlife. When a person died, the shaman, or religious leader, would lead the funeral, and the whole tribe would participate. They would bury the body with tools, weapons, and food so that the dead person could survive in the afterlife. After they made the grave, they covered it with dirt and stones. CroMagnon were a very religious type of early human.(11) We hope you enjoyed learning about the culture of Cro-Magnon and how they lived! Cro-Magnon was a one-of-a-kind tribe that lived up to 40,000 years ago! Learning about them was really interesting! Thank you for watching this PowerPoint!!! Questions • Did Cro-Magnon people fish or not? If they did, what did they use to hunt the fish? • How did Cro-Magnon make their clothes and what did they use to sew them together? • Did they believe in the afterlife, and if they did, how did they prepare the dead body? Answers 1. They fished with nets and nooses. 2. They made their clothes by sewing stretched leather together with sinew. 3. They prepared for afterlife by keeping tools, food, and needs to survive. Endnotes (1) Kearns, Marsha, “Homo Sapien: Cro-Magnons,” Early Humans, Creative Teaching Press, CA,1993, pp. 88 -90. (2) “Cro-Magnon,” Cro-Magnon, http://www.earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/. (3) California Vistas Ancient Civilizations, Macmillan McGraw-Hill, NY, 2007, pp.78-84. (4) Kearns, Marsha, “Homo Sapien: Cro-Magnons,” Early Humans, p. 88. (5) Ibid. (6) Ibid, p. 89. (7) Ibid, p. 90. (8) Ibid. (9) Ibid, p. 89. (10) Ibid, p. 90. (10) Ibid. Bibliography California Visits Ancient Civilizations. Macmillan/MacGraw Hill: New York, NY, 2007. “Cro-Magnon.” Cro-Magnon. http://www.earlyhumans.mrdonn.org/. Kearns, Marsha.“Homo Habilis.” Early Humans. Creative Teaching Press: CA, 1993.