Dr. Carol Fulton University of Regina Curriculum Critical Pedagogy PlaceBased Education Overt, explicit, or written curriculum Hidden or covert curriculum Null curriculum Societal curriculum Phantom curriculum Curriculum in Use Received curriculum Internal curriculum Electronic curriculum Everything is connected We shape and are shaped by the places we inhabit We are part of nested systems; our actions in one system have consequences in other systems Understanding our relationship to spaces and places may help to develop an ecoconsciousness Social justice and eco-justice are inextricably linked It is time we examined curriculum within the interconnected web of social, cultural, political, and ecological contexts in which we teach and learn. (Judson, 2006) Among the complex systems that are of interest to educators are the human individual, classroom/school collectives, communities and cultural systems Biological, psychological Social Political Economic Ecological Space refers to a physical context such as building, park, room, etc. Spaces are dynamic and changing because of the interactions that take place there and the meanings people attribute to the spaces Place emerges from the construct of space, as space endowed with meanings” (Judson, 2006) “where one knows others and is known to others" (Relph (2000, p. 27). Places represent sources of security and identity for individuals and for groups. Place contributes to individual and collective identity formation insofar as individuals identify with places and, in turn, places reciprocally identify individuals. (Judson, 2006) Immerses students in local heritage, culture, ecology, landscapes, opportunities, and experiences as a foundation for the study of language arts, mathematics, social studies, science, and other subjects. Encourages teachers and students to use the schoolyard, community, public lands, and other special places as resources, turning communities into classrooms. Is project-focused and inherently tailored by local people to local realities, place-based education is equally relevant in small towns and big cities Is equally effective for kindergarteners and high school students. http://www.peecworks.org/PEEC/Benefi ts_of_PBE-PEEC_2008_web.pdf According to Sobel “what’s important is that children have an opportunity to bond with the natural world, to learn to love it, before being asked to heal its wounds” (1996, p. 10). Not as oppositional or “messianic” (Bowers, 2001) as critical pedagogy Just as devoted to social change Try to foster ecoliteracy and have children develop a relationship with nature Believe that introducing political perspectives at wrong time can create anxiety, fear, and hopelessness in learners that makes them less capable of taking socially or ecologically appropriate action. Some argue that we need both critical pedagogy and place-based education to understand how the “isms” (racism, classism, anthropocentrism, etc.) are related to dominance and power. We need both decolonization and reinhabitation. Whose interests are being served? Who has power and privilege? Who is left out/marginalized? How has power, politics, history and culture shaped education? “Place + people = politics.”—Williams (2001, p. 3) [Critical] Place-based pedagogies are needed so that the education of citizens might have some direct bearing on the well-being of the social and ecological places people actually inhabit. (Guenewald, 2003) Decolonization “a metaphor for the process of recognizing and dislodging dominant ideas, assumptions and ideologies as externally imposed” ( Smith & Katz, 1993, p. 71). “a process of cultural and historical liberation; an act of confrontation with a dominant system of thought” (hooks, 1992, p. 1). Re-inhabitation “learning to live-in-place in an area that has been disrupted and injured through past exploitation” (Berg & Dassman, 1990p. 35). “The study of place . . . has a significance in reeducating people in the art of living well where they are” (Orr, 1990p. 130) Guenewald (2003, p. 9) states: In other words, reinhabitation and decolonization depend on each other. A critical pedagogy of place aims to (a) identify, recover, and create material spaces and places that teach us how to live well in our total environments (reinhabitation); and (b) identify and change ways of thinking that injure and exploit other people and places (decolonization). Chet Bowers (2001) suggests Eco-justice has four main focuses: (a) understanding the relationships between ecological and cultural systems, specifically, between the domination of nature and the domination of oppressed groups; (b) addressing environmental racism, including the geographical dimension of social injustice and environmental pollution; (c) revitalizing the non-commodified traditions of different racial and ethnic groups and communities, especially those traditions that support ecological sustainability; and (d) re-conceiving and adapting our lifestyles in ways that will not jeopardize the environment for future generations This is a relatively new area of research, and people have different priorities. It challenges all of us to think differently because schools have typically taught us to live in a competitive society that emphasizes economic growth at the expense of all else. What are the places they know best? Where do they feel safe, accepted, secure? Why? Where do they feel insecure, helpless, marginalized? Why? Who and what are in spaces and places that have meaning for them? What can be done to improve a space to make it a better place? Foster empathy for the familiar Move out toward exploration of the home range Move on to social action and reinhabitation. Spaces and places are pedagogical, social, and political constructions that are powered and contested. Schools have a responsibility to make individuals conscious of the interplay between humans and their lived spaces and how we are all actively engaged in making the places that influence our lives. Place-making is a democratic process. (Judson, 2006) But we can work within our spheres of influence. We can build community and work collectively to bring about change. Changes in one system can bring about changes in another. What changes can you make within your spheres of influence? School curricula have generally failed to communicate a sense of urgency regarding social, economic, or cultural issues, let alone to ever-increasing environmental degradation and global climate change. (Nelson, 2010) What role should schools and the accompanying curricula have on the consideration of urgent impending social and environmental crises? (Nelson, 2010) As you view the film jot down notes where you were: In agreement In disagreement Surprised Intrigued Angry Touched Answer the following question: In what ways did the film relate to the lecture on curriculum, placebased education, and critical theory Gruenewald, D. (2003). The best of both worlds: A critical pedagogy of place. Educational Researcher, 32 (4), pp. 3–12 Judson, G. (2006). Curriculum spaces: Situating educational research, theory and practice. The Journal of Educational Thought, 40(3), pp. 229-245. Nelson, T. (2010). Fill this in at home. Sobel, D. (1996). Beyond ecophobia: Reclaiming the heart in nature education. Great Barrington, MA: The Orion Society and The Myrin Institute.