Lesson One: Why do eco footprints vary?

People and the Planet- topic 5:
5.1 What are the environmental issues facing cities?
5.1a) Urban regions can generate huge eco- footprints
Large graphic
Our modern lives use lots of resources.
All resources ultimately come from the
natural environment.
This lessons looks at variations rates of
consumption amongst different
Coming up
What is an eco-footprint?
What contributes to an eco-footprint?
How and why to eco-footprints vary?
Case study: Winchester v Salisbury
Case study: Variations across London
Case study: Global variations
By the end you will be able to
• Define what an eco-footprint is
• Describe and explain variations in ecofootprints at different scales
Urban regions and their eco- footprints
What is the Ecological footprint of a Country?
The Ecological Footprint of a country is defined as the land and
natural resources required to provide the raw materials on which the
country along with its population feeds, and process the waste
products it produces.
• We use the natural environment as a SOURCE- to
obtain things for our needs
• We also use as a SINK- to dispose of all our waste
• These SOURCES and SINKS represents the amount
of land, water and air (BIPRODUCTIVE AREAS)
needed to support our lifestyles
• This is expressed in the measurement GLOBAL
Task: Define “Source” and “Sink”
What is in our footprint?
What sources do we use in order to be able to live in London?
What sinks do we use in order to be able to live in London?
Use page 205 in the textbook to help.
What is in our footprint?
Our footprints now extend far beyond places we live in as we no longer
produce, consume and dispose of everything we need in our local area.
These components make up an eco-footprint1) Food we eat
2) Transport we use
3) Housing we live in
4) Entertainment and leisure services
5) All consumer goods- clothes, electricals and all energy it takes to
produce and transport it
6) Infrastructure- water and power supplies, health and education
services, transport network improvements
7) Public services- resources used by councils to support our
lifestyles- refuse collection, highway and park maintenance,
street furniture, etc
How it contributes
to a footprint
Food you eat
e.g. Food is imported from
Chemical fertilisers help food
Transport you use
Entertainment and
leisure services
Consumer goods
Public services
How this impacts
your individual ecofootprint
I eat citrus fruit
from Spain
Why do eco-footprints vary?
Why do eco-footprints vary?
Salisbury and Winchester are two small cities in the south of England.
Salisbury has a population of 45000, whilst Winchester has a population
of 40000.
Salisbury and Winchester are just 80km apart but have very different
(global hectares)
Which city has the smallest footprint?
Can you suggest reasons for the difference?.
Why do eco-footprints vary?
Place the statements into the correct column.
Unemployment is low
Cycling is popular.
House prices are lower.
Unemployment is low
People commute long distances to
Income is higher
Why do eco-footprints vary?
Put each statement in the correct column. For each statement explain
how it impacts on the eco-footprint of the city.
House prices are lower.
This affects the ecofootprint because
Income is higher. This
affects the eco-footprint
Cycling is popular. This
affects the eco-footprint
People commute longer
distances to work. This
affects the eco-footprint
Unemployment is low This
affects the eco-footprint
Unemployment is low This
affects the eco-footprint
Why do eco-footprints vary?
Check your answers.
Winchester has more commuters that travel longer and further to work
therefore use cars increasing their CARBON FOOTPRINT (an aspect
of the eco footprint). more and in Salisbury people cycle/ walk to work
People have higher income in Winchester so can afford to spend more
on more things.
House values are higher in Winchester so can afford to spend more on
more things.
Both cities have high employment rates, meaning they have income to
spend on material possessions
London’s eco-footprint
London is 44th on the WWF list out of 60 towns and cities
London’s total footprint extends over an area twice the size of Britain and is equal to the
size of Spain. Not all of London has a large print-
How do footprints
vary across
London’s eco-footprint
Can you explain the variations in London’s eco – footprint?
% of low paid residents
Eco footprint
Eco- footprints around the World
Think: how will eco – footprints vary between countries?
Justify your answer.
Eco- footprints around the World
Lower Income Countries (LEDC)- tend to have smaller ecofootprints due to lifestyle differences and lower levels of
consumption in general
Higher Income Countries (MEDC)- tend to have higher ecofootprints as they have materialistic wealth, and therefore
consume more.
Task• Look at the graph and table on page 207 of textbook
• Is there a relationship between a country’s HDI rank and their
• Which countries are anomalies (don’t fit the normal pattern?)
Why do you think the UK has a high eco footprint whilst Kenya has the low
eco footprint?
Use the cards on your table to identify the reasons for this. Summarise
the answers in your exercise book
Why do you think the UK has a high eco footprint whilst Kenya has the low
eco footprint? Check your answers
DEVELOPED eg UK 5.3 ha per person
DEVELOPING eg Kenya 1.5ha per person
People in the UK consume more as they People consume less as they have lower
are more affluent eg:
incomes (less affluent)
Buy consumer goods eg CD’s; fridges etc. Consume fewer goods as they have lower
Which consume resources; consume incomes (GDP is less)
energy in production; transport and use.
Buy imported foods eg coffee; exotic Many grow their own food
fruits etc which increase food miles.
Own and run more cars which consume oil Few people own and run cars. Walk and
and contribute to air pollution as well as use bicycles.
CO2 contributing to global warming
Spend money on foreign holidays which Only the small wealthy minority can
generates more CO2 emissions from afford foreign holidays
People in the UK generate more waste Electricity is expensive and consumption
from consumer goods and consumption of levels are low especially in rural areas.
for eg electricity
• There are many individual components that
make up our eco-footprints, such as where our
food is from, how much we own and who makes
it, which services we have in our local area, how
we dispose of our rubbish and how much
rubbish we create.
• The world tends to see a pattern, with more
highly developed countries having higher ecofootprints, although within all countries ecofootprints vary from place to place.
Practice Question
• Using examples, explain how and why
different cities have different ecofootprints (4 marks)
To finish
What is the likely eco-footprint of people
Take foreign holidays
Play “I spy” each evening
Own an allotment
Commute for 1 hour per day.
Explain your reasons

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