How to foster creative ideation process of innovative products & services? Pr. Jérémy Legardeur ESTIA Biarritz/Bidart France Location In the heart of the Basque country: the ESTIA Campus An engineering school A business incubator and an enterprise zone A research laboratory A companies’ « foundation » How to foster creative ideation process of Research Methodology innovative products & services? Based on Action-Research approach [Lewin 1951] within companies Transform reality and elicit new knowledge concerning these transformations taking into account: Human & social phenomena, non determinist, singularities… => complexity of these sociotechnical processes of innovation A multidisciplinary approach: – Creativity tools & methods, Engineering approaches… – « Systemic » & « Complexity » [de Rosnay 1975], [Le Moigne 1977], [Checkland 1981], [Morin 1990]… – Sociology of innovation • [Bucciarelli 1988], [Callon et Latour 1985], [Rogers 1986], [Alter 1990]… – Management of innovation • [Moisdon, Hatchuel, Weil], [Leavitt] [Cooper]… Some examples of industrial fieldworks A double output: – Innovation as a result: the new product or service on the market – Innovation as a process: creativity, maturation of ideas, innovative project management… => New knowledge about the understanding of the management of the creative process within companies Creativity and Sustainable innovation Discovering matrix C-K 6 hat storytelling Brainstorming - Brainwash TRIZ 9 screens ASIT ecoASIT Ideas generation, creative thinking, eco-creativity Ideas development Experimentations during creative workshops for companies Ideas Lifecycle Management Model of hybridization of creativity tools and methods Development of eco-creative tool Collaborative software tool Crowdsourcing and open innovation Source: The Daily Telegraph LEFT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses logic detail oriented facts rule words & language present & past math and science can comprehend knowing acknowledges order/ pattern perception reality based forms strategies practical safe RIGHT BRAIN FUNCTIONS uses feeling "big picture" oriented imagination rules symbols and images present and future philosophy & religion can "get it" (i.e. meaning) believes appreciates spatial perception knows object function fantasy based presents possibilities impetuous risk taking Source: The Daily Telegraph Brainstorming (A. Osborn) • Quantity => Quality • First time: generation of ideas – no judgment of the ideas of myself and of the others – no hierarchy (only in theory!) • Second time: evaluation and selection • The results depend on the facilitator & the group The 6 hats (E. De Bono) Training By drawing 4 connected lines, try to go over all the dots Training By drawing 4 connected lines, try to go over all the dots The 9 screens from TRIZ (G. Altshuller) Systemic view Temporal view Previous Macro Systems Current Macro Systems Future Macro Systems Previous System Current System Future System Previous Sub-Systems Current Sub-Systems Future Sub-Systems Training How to divide this form in 2 identical parts? Training • Divisez la forme 2 parties parts? How to divide thissuivante form in en 2 identical égales Training How to divide this form in 3 identical parts? Training How to divide this form in 3 identical parts? Training How to divide this form in 4 identical parts? Training How to divide this form in 4 identical parts? Training How to divide this form in 5 identical parts? Training How to divide this form in 5 identical parts? Morphological analysis (F. Zwicky) crayon pen brush aerosol stylet chalk Support paper paper canvas wall screen granit Material bois Plastic horsehair nozzle plastic chalk Ink graphit acrylic paint paint digital chalk Users children adult artist tagger designer teacher Line thin large trace spray modular large Color unicolor unicolor multicolor unicolor digital unicolor Discovering matrix (A. Moles) Domain A Domain B Item A1 Item A2 Item A3 Item… Item B1 Item B2 Ideas ? Item B3 Item… Item: product, service, function, process, technology, parameter, users… Training Moving only 2 matches to set the box outside of the shovel Training Moving only 2 matches to set the box outside of the shovel SCAMMPERR (A. Osborn & B. Elberne) – – – – – – – – – S: Substitute C: Combine A: Adapt M: Modify M: Magnify/Minify P: Put E: Eliminate R: Reverse R: Rearrange Training By moving only 1 match, make a square Training By moving only 1 match, make a square Training By moving only 1 match, make a square = 2² TRIZ (Altshuller) 2 1 3 TRIZ Standard Problem Problem Standard Solution Specific Problem Specific Solution ? 4 ASIT (R. Horowitz) • ASIT (Advanced Systematic Inventive Thinking) adapted from TRIZ • Problem solving method • ASIT: 2 conditions and 5 tools based on the used of sentences that can be used during a brainstorming session The C-K Theory (Hatchuel and Weil) Training (last) What is the result of: « 1+2+3+4+5+6+7+8+9 »? The possible methods: - n(n+1)/2 with n=9 - Mental calcul or calculator - Add the extremum (1+9, 2+8…) - Know the result - Read the result at the bottom of the page! Result is not creative, but the methods to obtain it could be more or less complex. The aim of a good creative method is to do the opposite! The result is 45 Brainstorming C-K Discovering Matrix ASIT 6 Hat 9 Screens Storytelling TRIZ Brainwashing Morphological Matrix SCAMMPERR EcoASIT The limit of creative session Starting point « Good Ideas » « Bad Ideas » Creative session The limit of creative session Originality Incremental Individual => Creative conceptual ideas => Incremental ideas Group acceptance Toward ILM (Ideas Lifecycle Management) ILM =Generation + Maturation of ideas Point de départ Ideas not developped Divergence Creative session Emergence How to support this exploration, classification and reuse of ideas? New propositions of Products & Services Bad Ideas A simplified example of the PST model P S « Why? » « For whom? » « When?» « Where?» … T « A system (product/service) for what? » « A system composed of what? » A light and small system to bring water during a ski/snowboard session without « How? » « Which technology? » « Which means or processes? » Fill a tank with water In mountain hard bottle Soft bottle ski Soft tank by using the snow by… In station ? and melt it Freeride Knowledge on the market, usage… Material Process By energy supplying with a filter ? Filter technology? Solar Mechanical Chemical Knowledge on the enthalpy of the change phase of the snow General recommendations Do not believe in the “myth of the nugget’s idea” (bad interpretation of success stories) during creative sessions! It is not possible to evaluate the robustness and the value of the proposed ideas during creative sessions The main objective of the creative sessions is to foster the variety of the proposed ideas and identified existing and lacking knowledge The maturation of ideas must be done by the review of the “cloud of ideas” in a “classified three” in order to elicit a roadmap of exploration of the proposed concepts The creative sessions are only the beginning of the long adventure of innovation! Exam Take a sheet of paper, Put your name and surname, In 30 seconds, you have to design, to draw, to prototype and to test a flying object that must reach the target Fixation effect The education, the organisation, the society… The setting of the problem, the need, the objective… The location What we learned from this (scientific and robust) experimentation? • • • • • A worldwide competition… – Against the time, the competitors… – Work in urgency and stress, with unplanned events… … that imply to develop innovative (or routine) products… – Fuzzy creativity vs mental block – Complex product vs Simple solution …. according to the market, the usage, the real need… – A good understanding of the customers needs and theirs requirements … and taking into account of the competitors and stakeholders… – Market advantage and positions … in a more and more sustainable development perspective – Eco-design (green and friendly materials, end of life, re-use…) – Ethical and Societal considerations – and traçability !! What we learned really?