A Tourist`s World.ppt - Trinity Church of England High School

Report
Unit 3 Revision – A Tourist’s World
Tourism is by far and away the world’s biggest industry. There are few places that are untouched
by tourism, from the wastes of Antarctica to the crowded streets of central London. Millions of
people make a living from being involved in the tourist industry in some form or another.
Key Term:
A tourist is anyone who stays away from home for at least a night.
Types of Tourism
Main Categories
Types
Leisure
Holiday
Sporting event
Festival
Pilgrimage
Visiting friends and family
Stay with friends
Stay with relatives
Business
Business meetings
Conference
Exhibition
Educational trip
Medical treatment
Causes of the Growth of Tourism
Economic
People have more disposable income so money can be spent on
luxuries including tourism. Much of this disposable income is being
spent in LICs too so tourism is speeding up economic development
Social
Most workers in HICs work less than 40 hours a week and enjoy up
to 6 weeks of paid annual leave a year. This extra time has given a
massive boost to tourism
Transport
There has been a revolution in tourism transport! Journey times
have been reduced and longer journeys have been made more
comfortable. Jet aircraft, high speed rail links and cruiser coaches
have all helped this
Communication
The mass media (TV and internet especially) have raised people’s
awareness of faraway places and various activities that they may
never have come across before e.g. antique collecting etc
Political
More countries are realising the benefit of being a tourist
destination. Governments can make money from tourists visas and
departure taxes
Potential Exam Questions
1. Study the graph below, it shows how tourism has grown since 1995. Describe the changes
shown
Use tourist data in your answer
[3]
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. Explain the social causes of the growth of tourism
[4]
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
Holiday Attractions
Like other forms of economic activity, tourism exploits resources. The resources, or attractions, are
of two broad types – environmental and human
Environmental Attractions:
• Climate – plenty of sunshine and warm temperatures or good snow conditions
• Wildlife – game animals (in safaris), birds and whales
• Scenery – attractive and spectacular e.g. mountainous
• Protected areas – like national parks and nature reserves
• Beaches – clean sand, safe swimming and good surf
Human Attractions:
• Cultural heritage – museums, art galleries, temples, festivals, archaeological sites
• Accommodation – quality hotels, comfortable lodges, well-equipped chalets
• Local cuisine – special food, authentic restaurants
• Recreational facilities – golf courses, water parks, shopping centres
• Access – good transport connections, ease of local travel
• Personal security – low crime rate
Potential Exam Questions
1. Study the photo below, it shows part of the coast around Blackpool. Label one human and one
environmental attraction that the area offers
[2]
2. Explain how a tourist destination can exploit it’s attractions so that it attracts tourists all year
round.
[3]
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
Different Types of Holiday
Holidays may be distinguished in a variety of ways e.g. domestic and international tourism is the
most fundamental way of categorising holidays. However, what we do on holiday is also an
important method of categorising holidays. Also the location can be used to further categorise
holidays. The main types are described below:
Package Holidays
These are perhaps the most prevalent type of holiday but they are becoming less popular. They
consist of transport and accommodation that are sold together by a tour operator. They may also
offer car rental and excursions whilst on holiday. The main international destinations for package
holidays are the Spanish Costas, the Balearic Islands, the Canary Islands, the Greek Islands and
Cyprus (but there are many more!!). Their main appeal are:
• They are cheap
• Everything is organised for you
• There is plenty of entertainment and socialising
• They go to popular destinations
Package holidays are an example of mass tourism. This means that it is highly commercialised
and pays little regard to local communities. Cruises have been a development of mass tourism as
have theme parks e.g. Disney World in Florida
At the opposite end of the holiday market are alternative holidays. These are much smaller scale
and about individuals. The holidays are often ‘do-it-yourself’. They include:
Adventure Holidays - Bungee jumping, snorkelling, backpacking, scuba diving
Wildlife Holidays - Bird-watching, whale-watching and safaris
Education Holidays – learning to cook, wine tasting, pottery
Shopping Holidays –in duty-free zones
Self Catering Holidays – often in remote rural areas
Community or Conservation Holidays – where tourists give their time, labour and expertise to
help particular projects
Another category – eco-tourism overlaps with many of these. The main features of ecotourism:
• It is based on natural resources, such as wildlife and wilderness
• It focuses on experiencing and learning about nature
• It does not consume non-renewable resources or damage the environment
• It is locally oriented – controlled by local people, employing local people, using local produce
• Its profits stay in the local community
• It is sustainable and it contributes to the conservation of areas
Potential Exam Questions
1. For each of these statements say which type of holiday it is describing
[4]
(i) I have just finished my A Levels and plan to travel to Asia and Australia in my year out. I don’t
have a lot of money but I will hopefully meet a lot of new people and have new experiences.
_______________________________________________________________________________
(ii) Peter drove to Romania and helped to construct a new orphanage during his Easter holidays
_______________________________________________________________________________
(iii) David and Elizabeth took a cruise and stay holiday to the Caribbean for their 40th Wedding
Anniversary
_______________________________________________________________________________
(iv) Tony is an adrenaline junkie and loves to try out lots of new experiences when he’s on holiday
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. What are the differences between package holidays and backpacking holidays?
[2]
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. Study the photo of the beautiful island of Mauritius. Apart from a backpacking/adventure holiday.
Describe one other type of holiday that could happen in this area
[3]
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
Resort Development
It is important to remember that even the most famous of tourist resorts had humble beginnings.
Las Vegas began as a collection of small villages in the middle of the desert! This then raises some
important and interesting questions:
1. What was it that triggered their early growth as resorts?
2. What has kept them growing and booming as resorts?
3. Once a resort becomes well known, popular and prosperous, does it stay that way forever?
The Butler model suggests that all resorts follow the same broad sequence of changes. It is made
up of six stages in development and he called it a life cycle.
1) EXPLORATION
A few hardy and adventurous people looking for something different in a holiday find a place that is
special in terms of its culture, natural beauty, history or landscape. There may be no tourist
services available and local people will not be involved in tourist money making activities.
2) INVOLVEMENT
Local people start to notice that there are increasing numbers of people coming to their local
area. They start businesses to provide accommodation, food, guides, and transport.
3) DEVELOPMENT
Big companies start to see the emerging potential of the area as a tourist resort and therefore start
to invest money in the region. They build large hotel complexes and sell package holidays (a
package might include travel, accommodation, food and excursions). This makes the numbers of
tourists swell dramatically and massively expands the number of job opportunities for people in the
local region, in both tourist related jobs and in construction and services.
4) CONSOLIDATION
The local economy is probably dominated by tourism at this stage, and many local people will
make their money from this type of industry. However, this can remove people from other
industries such as farming and fishing and these industries can suffer as a result. There will be
continued building and expansion of the resort BUT some of the older buildings will start to become
unattractive and a lower quality client base might result.
5) STAGNATION
Competition from other resorts, rowdiness and a loss of the original features (e.g. if it had a great
beach but that is now crowded and full of rubbish) can cause the resort to stop growing. The
number of people going levels off then starts to decline, threatening local businesses and services.
6) DECLINE OR REJUVENATION?
From the stagnation point onwards there are 2 basic possibilities: Decline in various forms or
rejuvenation (regrowth of the resort) Decline can be slow or rapid, and regular visitors are replaced
by people seeking a cheap break or day trippers. Rejuvenation involves a cash injection from
either a private company or the government, to create a new attraction within the original resort to
boost its popularity - such as the Pleasure Beach at Blackpool.
There are some important points to note about the Butler Model:
• It is a generalisation – there will be exceptions to the rule
• Individual resorts will move along the pathway at different speeds
• Some resorts may stay at a particular stage for a long time
• When a resort reaches the stagnation stage, what happens to it will depend in a number of
players – planners, local government, investors and business people – and how ambitious and
enterprising they are
Potential Exam Questions
1. Explain why the number of tourists increase between stages 4 and 5 of the Butler Model.
[3]
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
2. Outline the characteristics of the ‘development’ stage of the Butler Model/
[3]
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________________
3. In the box below sketch the outline of the Butler Model and label the different stages.
[4]
The Effects of Tourism Growth
These effects are broadly categorised into economic, social and cultural and environmental. It is
important to remember that the effects (impacts) can be positive and negative BUT it is often
difficult to find some positives.
Economic
Positive
Negative
•
•
•
•
•
The multiplier effect
Labour intensive and
creates many jobs
Has indirect impacts on
primary and secondary
industry
The tourist staff,
themselves, spend money
in the local area
•
•
•
•
Leakage of profits to HQ of
tour operators
This is money that could
help economic
development
Tourism is reliant on
external factors such as
global economy
Tourism is seasonal with
massive unemployment out
of season
Many jobs are part-time
and unskilled
Social &
Cultural
Not many to identify…
• Revived local crafts such
as rug making
• Performing arts and rituals
are kept alive (even if just
for tourist entertainment)
• Can provide better
infrastructure for local
people e.g. public
transport
More tourism=more problems
• Drinking too much, loud
and offensive
• Ignoring local dress codes
• Encouraging crime
• Eroding local language by
relying on English
• Offending due to poor
behaviour in temples etc
• Segregation between
tourists and locals leading
to conflict
Environmental
Again very few…
• Alternative tourism allows
people to learn about the
environment
•
•
•
•
•
•
Clearance of important
habitats e.g. mangroves
Overuse of water sources
Pollution of seas, rivers and
lakes
Destruction of coral reefs
by divers
Disturbance of wildlife
Air/noise pollution from
traffic
Case Study: Impacts of Tourism in Khumbu, Nepal
This area of Nepal reaches up to the summit of Mt Everest. Every year, well over 100,000 tourists
visit this part of Nepal which is one of the world’s poorest countries. Traditionally the people were
subsistence farmers but they now provide most of the Sherpas who carry the packs and guide
trekking and mountaineering expeditions
Economic
Positive
Negative
•
Some men have set up small
businesses that organise
expeditions
Sherpa wages are good. They
earn enough to rebuild their
houses
•
Basic food prices are being
pushed up by tourists
Schools have been built and
education improved
The role and importance of
women is improving
•
Young men have left their
villages to become guides
There is not enough male
labour to work on farms.
Women are taking over the
work
Tourists bring in western
foods, diet and health have
improved
Many teenagers drop out of
school early to take jobs
Traditional garments are no
longer made
Families are breaking up
•
Social &
Cultural
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
Environmental
•
Electricity is now supplied by
mini hydro scheme
•
Fuel wood is becoming scarce
so forests are being cleared
Even alternative tourism that is usually considered to be better has it’s negative sides!
If we look at a completely different example – Ibiza – it is clear to see the impacts that tourism has
had on its reputation as the ‘Gomorrah of the Med’ (a reference to the town which, in the Bible
story, was destroyed by fire from heaven because of the wickedness of its inhabitants). This is
despite the fact that Ibiza has many beautiful areas that are World Heritage Sites. However, these
are largely unknown due to its party island reputation.
Eco-Tourism
The Eco-Tourist’s Questionnaire
Before booking your holiday, ask yourself the following questions:
1. What is the environmental impact of tourism on the country I want to visit?
2. Have people been forcibly resettled to make way for tourist development?
3. By travelling to this country, am I supporting a repressive regime?
4. Are my needs as a tourist increasing the demand for goods and services supplied by HICs?
5. Is my presence as a tourist likely to have an adverse effect on local society and culture?
Some of the main characteristics of eco-tourism were highlighted previously but we can add more:
• Involves areas that are in some way ‘special’ or ‘precious’ because of their scenery, wildlife,
remoteness or culture
• Aims to educate people and increase their understanding and appreciation
• Minimises the impact on and damage to, the environment and local community
• Maximises local involvement, local control and local benefits
As people become more aware of the impacts of tourism, the tourism marketplace is becoming
more and more ‘green’. Tourists are beginning to translate their concern for the environment into
appropriate tourist destinations and actions
Finally it is worth looking at those people that are supporting eco-tourism. A recent survey showed:
• Nearly 50% were retired or working part-time
• Nearly 70% were married or living with a partner
• There were slightly more male eco-tourists than female
• Just over 20% had university degrees
• 67% wanted the chance to walk in renowned cultural/ecological/heritage sites
• The top destinations were Australia (39%), Canada (25%) and New Zealand (22%)
• LICs have much to offer eco-tourists but are being outshined by HICs
Eco-Tourism Case Study: Footsteps, The Gambia
‘Footsteps’ is an ecotourism destination in The Gambia. It is built in the style of a
traditional African village compound, with nine accommodation huts. It is located
close to the village of Gunjur and is open all year round. Most of the tourists come
from the UK.
Environmental sustainability
-electricity from wind and sun
-its own vegetable garden reducing transport of products
-composting toilets
-hot water in showers only lasts 5 mins conserving water
-solar powered pump to fill water tanks
-water used by guests and hotel is collected and used for irrigation for fruit and
gardens
-swimming pool water is filtered through reed beds
Social Sustainability
-guests can watch local women tie dye material and see how a Jembe drum is made
and buy these products
-the lodge informs guests about local markets so they can buy straight from the local
people themselves ensuring all money remains in the pockets of local people
-company employs all their staff from local village not HICs
- empolyees are paid for the whole year
-Local Gambians receive job training and opportunities for promotion in Footsteps or
the wider tourism industry
-Employees get medical and dental care
Economic Sustainability
-leakages reduced through use of local employees, local craftsmen, local building
materials
-purchase of local foods for visitors
-employees paid all year
Mastering the 6 markers
The last question of ‘A Tourist’s World’ also contains 4 marks for Spelling,
Punctuation and Grammar (SPaG), making this a VERY important question to
get right.
Using Edexcel’s ResultsPlus service, it is clear that these questions are where
people are losing the most marks. We are going to look at some examples and look
at how to answer them fully.
1. Choose a study you have made of a holiday resort in the European Union.
Use the Butler model of resort development to explain how the resort has
developed.
(6)
Chosen study ________________________________
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
......................................................................................................................................................
2.
Choose an eco-tourist destination you have studied.
Explain how eco-tourism can benefit the local community at this destination.
[6]
Chosen destination ..............................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
3.
Explain the positive impacts (effects) of tourism
Use examples from different countries in your answer
[6]
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
.....................................................................................................................................................
Model Answers/Exam Reports
1. Choose a study you have made of a holiday resort in the European Union.
Use the Butler model of resort development to explain how the resort has
Developed.
Most candidates used Blackpool or Benidorm for their chosen study. The former was
usually better answered as it contained more specifics, although many responses
leapt from development to rejuvenation leaving vast chunks out. Benidorm answers
were often far too generalised.
Candidates generally linked stages of development quite well to the Butler Model.
Many candidates failed to achieve a level 3 because answers were purely descriptive
of the development of a particular and lacked any explanation. Both explanation and
specifics are required for level 3 - an example of a full mark answer is shown in
Example 11.
A small minority of candidates misread the question and chose a case study outside
the EU.
Blackpool has moved through all stages of the Butler
Model’ .In the late 1800s people began visiting the area for
short holidays to get away from city life (Exploration). As
more tourists visited the town more and more facilities
were built, especially after World War 2. This included new
hotels, guest houses, piers and even theme parks/fun fairs
(Involvement and Development).
In the 1970s and 1980s the numbers of tourist visitors
remained high but growth began to slow down
(Consolidation/Stagnation). More and more people were
going abroad to Europe e.g. Spain as package holidays
became cheaper and more available.
Blackpool eventually lost its appeal with tourists and
became very run down with a bad reputation for stag
parties and hen nights (Decline). Recently Blackpool
placed a bid for a new supercasino but failed. Nowadays
the local council are trying to rebrand the area and more
upmarket restaurants such as champagne and oyster bars
have opened up (Rejuvenation).
2.
Choose an eco-tourist destination you have studied.
Explain how eco-tourism can benefit the local community at this
destination.
[6]
Chosen destination ..............................................................................
Well received by the majority of candidates. The Gambia proved to be the most
successful case study, with candidates writing confidently about specifics, backed up
with explanation. Weaker answers focused too much on general ideas about the
characteristics of eco-tourism. They did not concentrate enough on the benefits to
the local community.
‘Footsteps’ is an ecotourism destination in The
Gambia. It is built in the style of a traditional African
village compound, with nine accommodation huts. It is
located close to the village of Gunjur and is open all
year round.
Guests can watch local women tie dye material and
see how a Jembe drum is made and buy these
products, this helps to provide an income and
employment for the local community. In addition the
lodge informs guests about local markets so they can
buy straight from the local people themselves ensuring
all money remains in the pockets of local people
The company employs all their staff from local village
not HICs meaning that none of the profits are ‘leaked’
out of the local area and employees are paid for the
whole year whereas normal tourism work is usually
seasonal.
Employees get medical and dental care provided for
them which is something they can not always afford.
This improves the health of the local community as a
whole.
3.
Explain the positive impacts (effects) of tourism
Use examples from different countries in your answer
[6]
Many candidates scored three or four marks due to limited explanation or because they
made generic rather than specific statements for their chosen resort. Weaker answers talked
about Ayia Napa, Machu Picchu and Zanzibar but without specific locational information or
depth of explanation.
Answers where Malham was the main case study were often quite good, with many
achieving Level 3 for the quality of explanation. Most candidates identified the importance
of job and wealth creation as positive impacts of tourism. Most candidates earned two SPaG
marks, but there were some who used specialist terminology such as the ‘multiplier effect’.
It was disappointing to note how many candidates did not use capital letters for the names
of places and countries.
Tourism brings a large amount of money into an
area because tourists usually have a large
amount of disposable income. There are lots of
job opportunities which help to support the local
economy.
In Malham, many farmers have diversified and
opened up their fields for tourists to be used as
car parks and campsites. This brings in extra
money for the farmers and helps to improve
their way of life and supplement their income.
Benidorm has had a huge number of tourists
(peaking at 12 million in 1977).This has brought
lots of money for the government which have
been invested into improving local schools and
hospitals. When tourism began in Benidorm it
created a multiplier effect with more and more
businesses opening up.
On the Inca Trail and in Khumbu porters and
Sherpas have gained extra rights and higher
wages as their jobs in tourism are seen as being
so important for it to continue.

similar documents