Mark true (T) or false

Report
Mark true (T) or false (F):
1) Pharmacy profession is concerned with the
preparation and dispensing of drugs only.
2) The golden triad consists of the physician, the
pharmacist and the patient.
3) Pharmacognosy is the science concerned with
the study of drugs of natural origin.
4) Chemical
name of
drug reflects
pharmacologic characteristics of drug.
the
5) The protein-bound drug is inactive and not
subjected to metabolism or excretion.
Choose the correct answer:

1)
2)
3)
4)

1)
2)
3)
4)
Insulin is a drug of:
Plant source.
Mineral source.
Animal source.
Microorganisms source.
A minimum concentration of a drug needed at a
receptor to produce response is defined as:
MEC.
MTC.
Therapeutic effectiveness.
Bioavailability.
 Therapeutic alternatives are drug products that
contain different active ingredients but of the same
1)
Chemical structure.
2) Bioavailability.
3) Pharmacologic class.
4) Non of the above.

Parenteral route has many disadvantages such as:
1)
Rapid response.
2) Invasive and painful.
3) Required sterile technique.
4) 2,3.
Pharmaceutical dosage forms
Dosage forms are needed for the following reasons:
1) For the protection of a drug substance from the
destructive effect
(ampoules).
of
air
and
humidity
2) For the protection of a drug substance from
destruction by gastric acid after
administration (enteric-coated tablets)
oral
3) To avoid bitter or offensive taste or odor of a
drug substance (capsules, coated tablets).
4) To provide liquid preparations of substances
that are insoluble in the desired vehicle
(suspensions).
5) To provide time-controlled drug action.
6) To provide optimal drug action from topical
administration sites (creams).
7) To provide for insertion of a drug into body’s
orifices (suppositories).
8) To provide for the placement of drugs directly
into bloodstream (injections).
Classification of dosage forms
I.
Liquid dosage forms.
II. Solid dosage forms.
III. Semi-solid dosage forms.
IV. Miscellaneous dosage forms.
I-Liquid dosage forms
They are often the dosage form of choice because:
1) They are more quickly effective than a solid
dosage form.
2) They are easier to swallow than solid dosage
forms (pediatric and geriatric).
3) Certain substances can be given only in a liquid
form.
4) Certain chemical substances may cause pain
(e.g. potassium iodide) or gastric irritation (e.g.
aspirin) when administered in a solid state.
5) Uniformity and flexibility of dosage are easily
obtained in liquid dosage form.
6) The dosage form of choice in certain types of
pathological condition.
Disadvantages:
1) They are liable to deterioration faster than solid
dosage forms.
2) They present many flavoring and sweetening
problems.
3) Many
incompatibilities
arise
because
of
interaction between dissolved species.
4) Provide excellent media for bacterial growth.
5) Many interactions arise because of changes in
solubility produced by solvent alteration.
The major classes of liquid pharmaceutical dosage
forms are:
A. Liquid dosage forms containing soluble matter:
Consist of one or several soluble substances
(solute) dissolved in water (solvent).
Solute: solid, liquid or gas.
Solvent: water-miscible liquid.
B. Liquid
dosage
form
containing
insoluble
matter:
Insoluble solutes may be suspended in a vehicle.
Examples: suspensions and emulsions.
Suspensions:
Consist of a two-phase system in which the
internal phase is solid and the external phase is
liquid.
The
liquid phase in
suspensions is aqueous.
most
pharmaceutical
Emulsions:
Consist of a heterogeneous system of at least one
immiscible liquid dispersed in another in the
form of droplets.
The system is stabilized by emulsifying agent.
Suspension
Emulsion
Ear drops:
 The drug, or mixture of drugs, is presented as a
solution or suspension in a suitable vehicle such
as water, glycerol or alcohol.
 Ear drops containing antibiotics used to treat or
prevent infections in the outer ear and ear canal.
 Ear drops containing sodium bicarbonate in water
or (sodium bicarbonate + glycerin) used to
remove excess wax.
Eye drops:
 These are sterile preparations.
 Depending on the condition being treated, they
may contain
 Antibiotics and steroids to treat eye infection or
used as prophylactic to prevent infections after
eye surgeries.
 Antihistaminics and NSAI to treat eye allergy.
 B-blocker to treat glaucoma.
Nasal drops:
 These are isotonic solutions.
 Nasal drops can have ingredients to provide relief
in conditions such as an allergy, common cold, or
a sinus problem.
 Locally
acting
decongestants are commonly
presented as nose drops.
 It works by contracting dilated blood vessels in
the nasal tissues and reducing the flow of
secretion.
Gargles:
 Used to treat infections of the throat.
 They are presented in concentrated form and
diluted at time of use.
 Should not be swallowed but held in the throat
while exhaling through the liquid.
Mouthwashes:
 Similar to gargles but are used to treat conditions
of the mouth.
 The active ingredients are usually antiseptic or
bactericidal agents.
Elixirs:
 Is a solution of one or more drugs.
 The vehicle generally contains a high proportion
of sucrose or , nowadays, a “sugar-free” vehicle as
sorbitol solution, which is less likely to cause
dental caries.
 They
include
antihistamines,
decongestants and expectorant.
antibiotics,
Liniments:
 These are liquid for external use.
 They are used to alleviate the discomfort of
muscle strain or arthritis.
 Are formulated from alcohol, acetone, or similar
quickly
evaporating
solvents
and
contain
counterirritant aromatic chemical compounds
such as methyl salicylate and turpentine oil.
Lotions:
 These are liquid of low-to-medium viscosity for
external use.
 May be solutions, suspensions or emulsions.
 Lotions can be used for the delivery to the skin of
medications such as:
 Antibiotics.
 Antiseptics.
 Antifungal.
 Corticosteroids.
 Anti-acne agents.
 Soothing, moisturizing or protective agents (such as
calamine).
Paints:
 Are solutions for application to the skin or
mucous membrane.
 Those used on the skin are often formulated with
a
volatile
vehicle
which
evaporates
on
applications and leaves a film of active ingredient
on the skin surface.
 Paints used on the throat and mucous surface
include a viscous vehicle such as glycerol, which
enables the preparation to remain contact with
the affected area.
 Paints are used for their antiseptic, analgesic or
astringent properties.
 Should be applied with a brush to assist
application.

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