Mark true (T) or false (F): 1) Pharmacy profession is concerned with the preparation and dispensing of drugs only. 2) The golden triad consists of the physician, the pharmacist and the patient. 3) Pharmacognosy is the science concerned with the study of drugs of natural origin. 4) Chemical name of drug reflects pharmacologic characteristics of drug. the 5) The protein-bound drug is inactive and not subjected to metabolism or excretion. Choose the correct answer: 1) 2) 3) 4) 1) 2) 3) 4) Insulin is a drug of: Plant source. Mineral source. Animal source. Microorganisms source. A minimum concentration of a drug needed at a receptor to produce response is defined as: MEC. MTC. Therapeutic effectiveness. Bioavailability. Therapeutic alternatives are drug products that contain different active ingredients but of the same 1) Chemical structure. 2) Bioavailability. 3) Pharmacologic class. 4) Non of the above. Parenteral route has many disadvantages such as: 1) Rapid response. 2) Invasive and painful. 3) Required sterile technique. 4) 2,3. Pharmaceutical dosage forms Dosage forms are needed for the following reasons: 1) For the protection of a drug substance from the destructive effect (ampoules). of air and humidity 2) For the protection of a drug substance from destruction by gastric acid after administration (enteric-coated tablets) oral 3) To avoid bitter or offensive taste or odor of a drug substance (capsules, coated tablets). 4) To provide liquid preparations of substances that are insoluble in the desired vehicle (suspensions). 5) To provide time-controlled drug action. 6) To provide optimal drug action from topical administration sites (creams). 7) To provide for insertion of a drug into body’s orifices (suppositories). 8) To provide for the placement of drugs directly into bloodstream (injections). Classification of dosage forms I. Liquid dosage forms. II. Solid dosage forms. III. Semi-solid dosage forms. IV. Miscellaneous dosage forms. I-Liquid dosage forms They are often the dosage form of choice because: 1) They are more quickly effective than a solid dosage form. 2) They are easier to swallow than solid dosage forms (pediatric and geriatric). 3) Certain substances can be given only in a liquid form. 4) Certain chemical substances may cause pain (e.g. potassium iodide) or gastric irritation (e.g. aspirin) when administered in a solid state. 5) Uniformity and flexibility of dosage are easily obtained in liquid dosage form. 6) The dosage form of choice in certain types of pathological condition. Disadvantages: 1) They are liable to deterioration faster than solid dosage forms. 2) They present many flavoring and sweetening problems. 3) Many incompatibilities arise because of interaction between dissolved species. 4) Provide excellent media for bacterial growth. 5) Many interactions arise because of changes in solubility produced by solvent alteration. The major classes of liquid pharmaceutical dosage forms are: A. Liquid dosage forms containing soluble matter: Consist of one or several soluble substances (solute) dissolved in water (solvent). Solute: solid, liquid or gas. Solvent: water-miscible liquid. B. Liquid dosage form containing insoluble matter: Insoluble solutes may be suspended in a vehicle. Examples: suspensions and emulsions. Suspensions: Consist of a two-phase system in which the internal phase is solid and the external phase is liquid. The liquid phase in suspensions is aqueous. most pharmaceutical Emulsions: Consist of a heterogeneous system of at least one immiscible liquid dispersed in another in the form of droplets. The system is stabilized by emulsifying agent. Suspension Emulsion Ear drops: The drug, or mixture of drugs, is presented as a solution or suspension in a suitable vehicle such as water, glycerol or alcohol. Ear drops containing antibiotics used to treat or prevent infections in the outer ear and ear canal. Ear drops containing sodium bicarbonate in water or (sodium bicarbonate + glycerin) used to remove excess wax. Eye drops: These are sterile preparations. Depending on the condition being treated, they may contain Antibiotics and steroids to treat eye infection or used as prophylactic to prevent infections after eye surgeries. Antihistaminics and NSAI to treat eye allergy. B-blocker to treat glaucoma. Nasal drops: These are isotonic solutions. Nasal drops can have ingredients to provide relief in conditions such as an allergy, common cold, or a sinus problem. Locally acting decongestants are commonly presented as nose drops. It works by contracting dilated blood vessels in the nasal tissues and reducing the flow of secretion. Gargles: Used to treat infections of the throat. They are presented in concentrated form and diluted at time of use. Should not be swallowed but held in the throat while exhaling through the liquid. Mouthwashes: Similar to gargles but are used to treat conditions of the mouth. The active ingredients are usually antiseptic or bactericidal agents. Elixirs: Is a solution of one or more drugs. The vehicle generally contains a high proportion of sucrose or , nowadays, a “sugar-free” vehicle as sorbitol solution, which is less likely to cause dental caries. They include antihistamines, decongestants and expectorant. antibiotics, Liniments: These are liquid for external use. They are used to alleviate the discomfort of muscle strain or arthritis. Are formulated from alcohol, acetone, or similar quickly evaporating solvents and contain counterirritant aromatic chemical compounds such as methyl salicylate and turpentine oil. Lotions: These are liquid of low-to-medium viscosity for external use. May be solutions, suspensions or emulsions. Lotions can be used for the delivery to the skin of medications such as: Antibiotics. Antiseptics. Antifungal. Corticosteroids. Anti-acne agents. Soothing, moisturizing or protective agents (such as calamine). Paints: Are solutions for application to the skin or mucous membrane. Those used on the skin are often formulated with a volatile vehicle which evaporates on applications and leaves a film of active ingredient on the skin surface. Paints used on the throat and mucous surface include a viscous vehicle such as glycerol, which enables the preparation to remain contact with the affected area. Paints are used for their antiseptic, analgesic or astringent properties. Should be applied with a brush to assist application.