Personal protective equipment

Report
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
FO3 Adrian D Quilang
INTRODUCTION
Firefighters require the BEST personal
protective equipment available because of the
hostile environment in which they perform their
duties. Providing and using quality protective
equipment will not necessarily guarantee
firefighter safety but injuries can be reduced and
prevented if protective ensembles and breathing
apparatus are properly maintained and used
properly.
FULL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT FOR
STRUCTURAL FIREFIGHTING
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HEAD PROTECTION
EYE PROTECTION
HEARING PROTECTION
PROTECTIVE HOODS
PROTECTIVE COAT AND TROUSER
FEET PROTECTION
HAND PROTECTION
PERSONAL ALERT SAFETY SYSTEM
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
HEAD PROTECTION
Prevents the head from impact and puncture
injuries as well as from scalding water. This is the
first concern of firefighters. Also referred to as
helmet.
Benefits of the Head Protection
Protect from head from impact
Provide protection from heat and cold
Provides face shields for secondary of the eyes and face
when SCBA is not required
HEAD PROTECTION
Types of Head Protection
Firefighter Helmets
 Rescue Helmets
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HEAD PROTECTION
Parts of a Helmet
Ear Covers
 Chin Straps
 Face Shield
 Head Strap Adjuster
 Brim (Wide)
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EYE PROTECTION
Protects the wearer’s eyes from flying solid
particles or liquids.
Types of Eye Protection
Helmet Face Shield
Safety Goggles
SCBA Mask Facepiece
Safety Glasses
HEARING PROTECTION
Limits noise-induced damage to the firefighter’s
ears when loud noise situations cannot be
avoided
Types of Hearing Protection
 Intercom/Ear protection systems
 Earmuffs / Ear Plugs
PROTECTIVE HOODS
Provides protection of the firefighter’s neck, ears
and face not covered by helmet or coat from
exposure to extreme heat
PROTECTIVE COATS AND TROUSERS
Used to protect the upper
and
lower
extremities
(trunks and limbs) against
cuts, abrasions, and burn
injuries resulting from
radiant heat and provides
limited protection against
corrosive liquids
PROTECTIVE COATS AND TROUSERS
There are no difference to both components
for protection except that the protective coats
are for upper extremities and protective
trousers are for lower extremities.
Components of a Protective Coat and Trousers
Outer Shell
Moisture Barrier
Thermal Barrier
PROTECTIVE COATS AND TROUSERS
Parts of Protective Coat
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Collar
Storm Flaps
Wristlets
Pockets
Reinforced Elbow Pads
Straps, Zippers or Hooks
Reflective Trims
PROTECTIVE COATS AND TROUSERS
Parts of a Protective Trouser
Reinforced Knee Pads
 Heavy Duty Suspenders
 Reflective Trims
 Pockets
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FEET PROTECTION
Protect the feet from burn injuries and puncture
wounds. Also called Safety Shoes and Boots
Types of Feet Protection
Fire Boots
Safety Shoes
HAND PROTECTION
Protects the hands from cuts, abrasions, wounds,
and burn injuries. Must have enough dexterity
(handiness) for proper fit to the wearer.
Kinds of Hand Protection
Firefighter Gloves
(with wristlets or Gauntlets)
Extrication Gloves
Knitted Gloves
Rescue Gloves
PERSONAL ALERT SAFETY SYSTEM
Provides life-safety protection
by emitting a loud shriek if the
firefighter should collapse or
remain
motionless
for
approximately 30 seconds.
Newer types of PASS are
attached to the SCBA Harness
Assembly.
This is also called Personal
Alert Device (PAD)
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Why Respiratory Protection is Important?
Health Hazards in the workplace are a major concern for
both employers and employees. It is important, though, to
remember that hazardous materials only present a health
hazard when they come into contact with your body.
Hazardous materials can enter your body in three ways:
 Ingestion
 Skin Absorption
 Inhalation
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Inhalation
Of the three ways that hazardous materials can enter your body,
inhalation is the most common route of exposure for most materials
which are health hazards. This includes breathing in dust, fumes, oil
mist, and vapors from solvents and various gases.
Inhaling hazardous materials damages the delicate structure of your
lungs. Lungs that have been damaged are more susceptible to
respiratory diseases. These diseases often cannot be cured, and
eventually lead to death. In short, respiratory protection is serious
business.
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Respiratory Hazards
The lungs and respiratory tract are more vulnerable to injury than any
other body areas, and the gases encountered in fires are, for the most
part, dangerous in one way or another. It is a general rule that we should
not enter any potential toxic atmosphere or any hazardous condition unless
equipped with a protective breathing apparatus.
Four common hazardous atmospheres associated with or other
related emergencies
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Oxygen Deficiency
Elevated Temperatures
Smoke
Toxic Atmospheres
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Oxygen Deficiency
Occurs when the combustion process consumes oxygen
while producing toxic gases that either physically
displace oxygen or dilutes its concentration. When below
18 percent, the human body responds by increasing its
respiratory rate. Oxygen deficiency occurs in below-grade
locations, chemical storage tanks, grain bins, silos and
other confined spaces. Another is total-flooding carbon
dioxide extinguishing system after discharge.
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Physiological Effects of Reduced Oxygen (Hypoxia)
Oxygen in Air (Percent)
21
Symptoms
None – Normal Conditions
Some impairment of muscular coordination;
increase in respiratory rate to compensate for
lower oxygen content
17
12
Dizinnes, headache, rapid fatigue
9
Unconsciousness
6
Death within a few minutes and concurrent heart
failure
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Smoke
Is the suspension of small particles of carbon,
tar, and dust floating in the combination of
heated gases. Some of the suspended
particles are irritating, but others may be
lethal. The darker the smoke, the higher
carbon monoxide level.
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Toxic Atmospheres
 Associated with Fires
 Not Associated with Fires
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Toxic Atmospheres Associated with Fires
Occurs during the combustion process, exposure to
combination of irritants and toxicants whose toxicity cannot
be predicted accurately
The particular toxic gases given off at a fire vary according to
four factors:
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Nature of the Combustible
Rate of Heating
Temperature of the evolved gases
Oxygen concentration in the air
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Toxic Atmospheres Not Associated with Fires
Are most likely can be found at highly industrialized
processes that uses extremely dangerous chemicals.
This does not necessarily mean only at those areas
but another from leakage upon / during
transportation of highly dangerous/hazardous
chemicals
SCBA – RESPIRATORY HAZARDS
Elevated Temperatures
Are caused by exposure to heated air can damage
the respiratory tract, and if air is moist, the damage
can be much worse. Excessive heat taken quickly
into the lungs can cause decrease in blood pressure
and circulatory system failure. Inhaling heated
gases can cause pulmonary edema (accumulation of
fluids in the lungs and associated swelling) can
cause death by asphyxiation
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Protective breathing apparatus is extremely crucial to the wellbeing of a firefighter. Failure to use this equipment could lead
to failed rescue attempts, firefighter injuries, or worst –
fatalities.
A well trained firefighter should be knowledgeable of
respiratory hazards, the requirements for wearing protective
breathing apparatus, the procedures for donning or doffing the
apparatus, and the proper care and maintenance of the
equipment. The basic misconception of the SCBA is that its
content is not oxygen but compressed air (open-circuit) or
liquid oxygen (closed-circuit)
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
SCBA protects the face and lungs from toxic smoke
and gases, and other products of combustion
Types of Breathing Apparatus
 Open-Circuit – most frequently used SCBA in the fire service. This
uses compressed air. The exhaled SCBA air is vented to the outside
atmosphere.
 Closed-Circuit - mostly used in long operations and hazardous materials
incidents. It can last for four (4) long hours before replacement and weighs
less than the open-circuit because of the smaller cylinder and uses pure liquid
oxygen. It is also called Rebreather Apparatus.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Basic Components of the SCBA
Backpack and Harness Assembly – holds the air cylinder on
the firefighter’s back and provides stability
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Air Cylinder Assembly – Includes cylinder, valve, and
pressure gauge
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Regulator Assembly – includes high pressure hose and low
pressure hose
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Face Piece Assembly – includes face piece lens, exhalation
valve, low-pressure hose, face piece straps
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TYPES OF SCBA BREATHING APPARATUS
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
General Parts of the SCBA
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Backpack and Harness
Remote Pressure Gauge
Cylinder Pressure Gauge
High Pressure Hose
Face Mask
Bypass Valve
First Stage Regulator
Second Stage Regulator
Low Pressure Hose
Exhalation Valve
Air Cylinder
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Protective Breathing Apparatus Limitations
In order to operate effectively, the firefighter must be aware of
the three (3) limitations of SCBA, namely:
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Limitations of Wearer
Limitations of Equipment
Limitations of Air Supply
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Limitations of Wearer
Several factors affect the firefighter’s ability to use SCBA effectively. These
factors include physical, medical and mental limitations.
Physical
Physical condition – the wearer must be in sound physical condition in
order to maximize the work that can be performed and to stretch the air
supply as far as possible.
 Agility – Wearing a protective breathing apparatus restricts the wearer’s
movements and its affects his balance. Good agility will help overcome
these obstacles.
 Facial Features – the shape and contour of the face affects the
wearer’s ability to get a good facepiece-to-face seal.
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SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Medical
Neurological Functioning – good motor coordination is
necessary for operating in protective breathing equipment. The
wearer must be of a sound mind to handle emergency situations
that may arise.
 Muscular/Skeletal Condition – must have physical strength
and size to wear the size required to perform the mandated tasks.
 Cardiovascular Conditioning – poor cardiovascular conditioning
can result to heart attacks, strokes or other related problems during
strenuous activity.
 Respiratory Functioning – proper respiratory functioning can
and will maximize the wearer’s operation time in a self-contained
breathing apparatus.
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SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Limitations of Equipment
Limited visibility – due to the facepiece, reduces peripheral vision
and facepiece fogging can reduce overall vision.
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Decreased ability to communicate – facepiece hinders voice
communication
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Increased Weight – adds 25 to 35 pounds of the weight of the
firefighter, depending on the model
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Decreased Mobility – due to the increased weight factor of the
SCBA and the splinting effect of the harness straps, reduces
firefighter’s mobility.
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SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Mental
Adequate training in equipment use – the wearer must
be knowledgeable in every aspect of the breathing apparatus
use.
 Self-confidence – the firefighter’s belief in his ability will
have an extremely positive overall effect on the actions
performed.
 Emotional Stability – the ability to maintain control in an
excited or high stress environment will reduce the chances of a
serious mistake being made.
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SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Limitations of Air Supply
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Physical Condition of User – firefighter’s poor physical condition
generally expends air supply faster
Degree of Physical Exertion – the higher the physical exertion, the
faster the air supply expended
Emotional Stability of the User – the higher the wearer become
excited or stressed, uses air supply faster than the calm firefighter.
Condition of Apparatus – minor leaks and poor adjustment of
regulators results in excessive air loss
Cylinder pressure before use – if the cylinder is not filled to capacity,
the amount of working time is reduced proportionately
Training and user experience – properly trained and highly
experienced personnel are able to draw the maximum air supply from a
cylinder.
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Donning of SCBA – refers to the proper wearing
of the SCBA
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Donning from a storage case
Over-the-Head Method
 Backpack Method
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Donning from a Seat Mount
SELF-CONTAINED BREATHING APPARATUS
Doffing of SCBA – refers to the proper removal of the SCBA
Doffing Procedures:
Make
sure that you are out of the contaminated area and SCBA is no longer
required.
Discontinue the flow of air from the regulator to the facepiece
Disconnect low pressure hose from the regulator from the facepiece, depending
upon type of SCBA
Remove the facepiece
Remove the backpack assembly while protecting the regulator
Close cylinder valve
Relieve pressure from the regulator
Extend all straps
Refill and replace the SCBA
Clean and disinfect the facepiece
CARE AND MAINTENANCE OF PPE
Proper Care and Maintenance of Personal Protective
Equipment
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Upon return to the station, check all worn and used PPE
for any damages or contamination
Clean/Wash all those used in the operations before
storing
If contaminated and cannot be disinfected, properly
dispose the equipment
Follow the necessary procedures for cleaning and
maintaining equipments based on the manufacturer’s
instructions.
THANK YOU…
Let us proceed to drills / practical exercises

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