Shop Safety (Warning…Graphic) Roni Crow Richland High School Burns • Most common and painful injury that occurs in welding fabrication • Can be caused by hot welding material or by ultraviolet rays • Chance of infection is high because of the dead tissue Burns • 1st Degree Burns– Surface of skin is reddish in color, tender, and painful and does not involve broken skin – Treatment: Immediately put burned area under cold water or apply cold water compress (not ice). Cover the areal with sterile bandages or a clean cloth. First Degree Burn Burns • Second-degree burns: – Have occurred when the surface of the skin is severely damaged, resulting in the formation of blisters and possible breaks in the skin. – Treatment: Put under cold water, dry area with a CLEAN towel and cover with a sterile bandage or clean cloth to prevent infection. Seek medical attention. If around nose or mouth, or involve singed nasal hair, breathing problems may develop. Second Degree Burn Burns • Third-degree burns – Surface of the skin and possible the tissue below the skin appear white or charred. Initially little pain is present because nerve endings have been destroyed. Do NOT remove any clothes that are stuck to the burn. Do NOT put ice water or ice on burns, could cause shock. Burns • Third-degree burns: – Breathing difficulties are common with burns around the face, neck, mouth. – Treatment: Place a cold cloth on burns of the face, hands or feet to cool burned areas. Call for ambulance immediately; even people with small third-degree burns need medical attention. Third Degree Burns Burns • Some burns are caused by LIGHT!! – Ultraviolet Light: can cause first and second degree burns to the eyes or exposed skin. You may not feel it at the time. Flash burns can occur in seconds. UV light can pass through loosely woven clothing, thin clothing, light colored clothing, and damaged equipment. Burns – Infrared Light: Light wave is felt as heat. It causes burns, but person will immediately feel this type of light and avoid it! – Visible Light: Light that we see. Too much visible light may cause temporary night blindness. It is not hazardous though. Eye and Ear Protection • • • • • • • Safety Glasses Goggles Full Face Shield Flash Glasses Welding Helmets Earmuffs Earplugs Safety Glasses • Need to have side shields • Are worn ANY time you are in the shop • Protect your eyes from flying debris Goggles • Ours have #5 lenses to protect eyes • Used ANY time you are using/looking at light from Oxyacetylene cutting or welding Welding Helmet • Protects eyes from welding light caused by arc welders, and have #10 lenses. • Ours are autodarkening, so they should immediately darken upon striking an arc. • Worn ANY time around arc welding. Or don’t wear eye protection… Eye and Ear Protection • Earplugs: – Worn in the ear canal to protect ears against hearing damage. • Earmuffs: – Cover the outer ear completely to protect against hearing damage. This type of protection can keep the ears from getting burned. Respiratory Protection • All welding and cutting processes produce undesirable by-products, such as harmful dusts, fumes, mists, gases, smokes, sprays or vapors. • Prevent the collection of these within the work atmosphere. • IF this is not possible, employers are required by law to provide respirators. Respiratory Protection • We will keep the large door open when working in the shop, keep the fan on, and use fume extractors Respiratory Protection • CAUTION: – Welding or cutting must never be performed on drums, barrels, tanks, vessels, or other containers until they have been emptied and cleaned thoroughly, eliminating all flammable materials and all substances (such as detergents, solvents, greases, tars, or acids) that might produce flammable, toxic, or explosive vapors when heated. Respiratory Protection • Extreme caution must be taken to avoid the fumes produced when welding is done on dirty or used metal. Any chemicals that are on the metal will become mixed with the welding fumes, a combination that can be extremely hazardous. All metal must be cleaned before welding to avoid this potential problem. MSDS • Material safety data sheets should be kept on all chemicals that could be considered hazardous. Waste Disposal • Make sure and put ALL metal slag, including any metal swept off of the floor, into the metal waste barrel. Ladder Safety • Never climb a ladder alone, make sure you have someone hold the ladder. • Make sure and read the ladder rules posted by the manufacturer. • Straight ladders should be a quarter of the height to the point of support away from base. Ladder Safety (Basic Rules) • Do not exceed the manufacturer’s recommended weight limit. • Make sure you set it up on an even surface. • Never use in a wet or muddy area where mud could be tracked up steps. • Tie the ladder securely in place. • Climb and descend cautiously. • Do not carry tools or supplies in your hands while climbing. • Never use around live electrical wires. • Never use one too short so that you have to stand on the top and reach. • Wear well fitted shoes. Electrical Safety • Injuries, and even DEATH, can be caused by electric shock unless proper precautions are taken. • Most welding/cutting operations involve electrical equipment. • Most is equipment in the shop is powered by AC or alternating-current sources ranging from 115-460 volts. Electrical Safety • Most electric shock in the welding industry does not occur from contact with welding electrode holders but as a result of accidental contact with bare or poorly insulated conductors. Electrical Safety • Electrical resistance goes down under the presence of water or moisture (including perspiration). • Make sure the workpiece being welded and the frame of the machine are connected to a good electrical ground. • Check cables periodically for damage. Electrical Safety • NEVER allow the metal parts of electrodes or electrode holders to touch the skin or wet coverings on the body. • ALWAYS wear dry gloves in good condition. • Rubber soled shoes are advisable. • TURN OFF and UNPLUG welders when not on use. Electrical Safety • Make sure volts on machine match volt output of the plugs you’re using! • When using extension cords on portable power tools, make sure the size of the conductors are large enough to prevent an excessive drop in voltage (lowering of the voltage at the power tool from that of the voltage at the supply. • Chart on pg 29 of the text for extension cords General Rules for Power Tools • Know how to safely use the tool you are using. • Ground the tool unless it is double insulated. • Do not expose the power tool to rain or use in wet locations. • Because of SPARK risk, never start a power tool around flammable gasses/liquids. • Do not force a tool, operate at rate it was designed for. General Rules for Power Tools • Use the right tool for the job. • Wear eye protectors. • Wear a face or dust mask if operation will create dust. • Take care of the power cords!! Never carry by cord or unplug by the cord. • Secure your work with clamps. • Do not overreach when using power tools. General Rules for Power Tools • Maintain power tools. Replace all worn, broken, or lost parts immediately. • Disconnect from power source when not in use. • Make sure keys/wrenches are removed before operating. • Avoid accidental starting • Be sure parts are all attached securely. • Give undivided attention when operating. Power Tools, cont. • Never use a grinding stone with a higher rated RPM. If they are turned too fast, they can explode causing injury or death. Power Tools, cont. • Always direct sparks down and away from other welders and equipment. • Clamp any work down before using tools. • Nail guns fire nails at the rate of a gun, so always treat them accordingly. • Always clamp metal before cutting with any of the saws. • Don’t use any tools you haven’t been instructed to use. Appropriate Dress Make a list of all of the things this welder is wearing for protection against injury or burns. Handling/Storing Cylinders • Always store full oxygen and fuel cylinders at least 20 feet apart or with a 5 ft wall in between. • Chain cylinders securely to the wall or to a cart. • Keep away from heat source. FIRRRREEE!!! • There are four different types of fire extinguishers, each designed to put out fires on certain types of materials • Type A, B,C, and D FIRRRREEE!!! FIRRRREEE!!! • PASS is the acronym that helps you remember how to operate a fire extinguisher. • It stands for Point, Aim, Squeeze, and Sweep. Work Area • Always make sure the work area is swept and kept clean and tidy. • The shop will be checked DAILY before I dismiss you, and I will give you plenty of time to clean. So do it right!! Hand Tools • The adjustable wrench is the most popular hand tool used by the welder. Hand Tools • The mushroomed heads of chisels, punches, and the faces of hammers should be ground off. • Chisels and punches that are going to be hit harder than a tap should be held in a chisel holder to avoid hand injury. Hand Tools • A handle should be placed on the tang of a file in order to avoid injuring your hand. Hand Tools • Check to see that the handle is tight before using any hammer. • Discard or repair any tool if the face shows excessive wear. • Always strike a hammer squarely. • Never use one hammer to strike another hammer. • Do not use the end of the handle of any tool for tamping or prying. It might split. Handling Materials • Always lift with your legs and not your back Handling Materials • When moving a load overhead, stay out of the way of the load in case it falls. • Hoists and cranes: – Stand to one side or the other of any ropes, chains, or cables. If they break and snap back, they will miss you. RED=Danger • Red is used to identify areas or items of danger or emergency such as safety switches and fire equipment. Orange=Warning • Orange is used to designate machine hazards such as edges and openings. Orange is also used as background for electrical switches, levers, and controls. Yellow=Caution • Yellow, like the amber traffic light, means to be cautious. It is used to identify parts of machines, such as wheels, levers, and knobs that control or adjust the machine. Yellow and black stripes are used in combination to mark stairs, protruding objects, and other stationary hazards. Blue=Information • Blue is used for signs if a warning or caution is intended. Such signs are made of white letters on blue background and carry messages such as “OUT OF ORDER” or “DO NOT OPERATE”. Green=Safety • Safety green is a special shade of green and indicates the presence of safety equipment, safety areas, first aid, and medical practice. Black and Yellow Diagonal Stripes= Radioactivity • A black and yellow diagonal striped pattern is designated as the marking for radiation hazards. White • White is used to mark off traffic areas. White arrows indicate direction of traffic. White lines also mark work areas around objects in the shop. Yellow may be used in place of white to mark areas and lanes. White and Black Stripes • White and black in alternate strips or checkers are traffic markings. An example of such use is to mark traffic-stopping barricades. Gray • Gray is used on floors of work areas in the shop. It is a restful color and provides good contrast for other safety colors. It is used to paint body areas of machines and may be used on the table tops if painting is desired. EMERGENCY •In any case of emergency, you call me and I will decide what the next course of action is. References • Thompson’s Metal Fabrication: Technology for Agriculture. 2004 Edition.