Infectious diseases are illnesses caused by microorganisms Microorganisms are small things found everywhere Most do not cause disease and actually help your body function normally Certain ones do CAUSE infectious Diseases that can spread directly or indirectly These are known as contagious or communicable diseases They are passed from person to person, object, or animal •Touching •Coughing/Sneezing •Sharing •Sexual Contact Pathogens are tiny organisms that cause communicable diseases Infection occur when pathogens enter the body, multiply, and damage cells Bacteria-tiny one-celled organisms that live nearly everywhere o Common types: strep throat ( if not taken care of can cause heart damage), boils, bacterial pneumonia, impetigo, sinus infection, tuberculosis, hepatitis Virus- smallest disease causing organism, not alive, cannot reproduce on their own o Common types- measles, mumps, chicken pox, common cold, influenza, mononucleosis • The West Nile virus broke out in 2000 in the northern part of the United States for several months. The news reported the number of deaths and informed the public about the virus and how it is transmitted. What are pros and cons to intense media coverage of a disease outbreak? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KOWrjsENY 8I Good hygiene Hand washing Take warm showers Eat properly Get enough sleep Use clean utensils Do not share drinking glasses with others Wear suitable clothing outside and use insect repellant Examine your body for ticks Avoid contact with contagious people Cover your mouth-sneezing or coughing Stay away during contagious period- length of time when a particular disease can spread from person to person Direct contact with the infected person Indirect contact with an infected person Contact with a vector- an organism such as an insect, that transmits pathogens Other contacts- drink or eat after someone, uncooked meat, receive blood contaminated Carriers- bacteria can remain dormant in the lungs of some people because they do exhibit any symptoms of the disease. Carriers get rid by taking medicine and living a healthy lifestyle. • Ear piercing. Is it safe? • What are risks of ear piercing? • What are ways that the risks could be reduced? Drugs that can kill or slow the growth of bacteria Can be made from bacteria and mold Penicillin was the first discovered in 1928 by Alexander Fleming on accident 1940 is when it became available to people It is important to take all of the medicine to ensure to get rid of all the bacteria • We live in a society of electronics. Compare electronic viruses to viral viruses. How are they similar and different? • Skin- Outside layer of skin is tough and made up of dead cells. This makes it difficult to get germs through. • Hairs- Traps germs around eyes and nose and keeps them from getting in the body. Cilia keeps germs out of the lungs. • Tears-Wash out germs from your eyes. • Mucus-Traps germs and contains chemicals to attack and destroy the germs. • Saliva and Stomach acid- Germs that enter the mouth and stomach are killed by saliva and stomach acid. Immune system- main line of defense- cells, tissues, and organs that fight off pathogens and disease Immunity- body’s ability to resist germs that cause particular disease Two major kinds of defense strategies: o Nonspecific Response-Inflammation or increased blood flow to affected area, send white blood cells to speed to the affected area and destroy invading pathogens o Specific Response- Set in motion if it survives nonspecific response, more specialized, it can recognize this pathogen if it enters the body again. Lymphatic System- secondary circulatory system that helps the body fight pathogens and maintain its fluid balance o Lymphocytes react to antigens that are released by invading pathogens o Our body produces antibodies –proteins to attach to antigens and keep them from harming us Two types of Immunity Natural immunity- born with it Acquired immunity- develops over lifetime Passive acquired immunity- receiving antibodies from mother in womb Active acquired immunity- Body makes specific antibodies in response to invasion by a specific pathogen Immune Response- B cells-production of antibodies and T cells- destroy pathogens Vaccines-preparation of dead or weakened pathogens that is injected into the body to cause the immune system to produce antibodies • Write down three ways that the body can defend itself. • “The Germs Go Marching In” • Disease that can be passed from person to person by any form of sexual contact. • STD/Is can be caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites • Some STD/Is can cause lasting pain and infertility or the inability to produce children • Some can cause brain damage, paralysis, and death • Handshake Activity Sexual abstinence is the refusal to take part in sexual activity Can avoid contracting STI There are no vaccines for STIs Your body cannot build immunity to STIs Choose your friends carefully- they should share your morals and values Avoid being alone with a date Know your limits and communicate them with your date before you go out Say no through your words and actions Seek advice from a trusted adult on handling difficult situations Chlamydia Human Papillomavirus Genital Herpes Gonorrhea Syphilis Trichomoniasis Genital warts Nongonocceal urethritis Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Urinary Tract Infections Vaginal Yeast Infections Deadly disease that affects the body’s natural ability to fight infection Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS The only way to tell if infected is through a blood test There is no vaccine to prevent infection of HIV and no cure for AIDS Carriers appear healthy but can pass HIV to others Attacks immune system, activates B cells and destroys T cells Symptoms o Swollen lymph nodes, fatigue, diarrhea, weight loss, fever Presence of opportunistic infection- infection that rarely occurs in a healthy person Sexual Contact Mother to Child Drug Use Blood Transfusion • When visiting an AIDS patient, you have to wear protective mask and clothing not to protect yourself but the AIDS patient. Why? Not spread through the air Not spread through kissing- closed mouth. Open mouth, only if both people have sore Not spread through casual contact- shaking hands Not spread by mosquitoes that have bitten an infected person Not spread by sharing eating utensils with an infected person Not spread by donating blood Avoid sexual contact Avoid drug use • How is HIV spread? Not spread? How would you feel about having a student in class with AIDS? How would the person like to be treated by others? • Explain how STD’s are spread and what you think can be done to reduce the spread of STDs. Ask students how education can slow the spread of STDs? • Two Columns- One for Method of Preventing Spread of Disease and Two- Method of Spreading Infectious Diseases • You and some students are at a party at a friend’s house when another student arrives with a bottle of a new soft drink. He is telling everyone how good it is, and then he offers you a drink of it.” Ask the students if it is OK to drink after him?