Unit 1 How to Fight an Infection

Unit 1 How to Fight an Infection
• The collection, classification, storage, and
analysis of biochemical and biological
information using computers especially as
applied in molecular genetics and genomics
• Sue and the outbreak of Neiserria meningitidis
– We collected information from individuals to try
to track the infection
• We identified the possible organisms infecting
the college students with BLAST
• http://blast.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Blast.cgi
– Provides you with a match to your sequence of
– The higher the percentage, the greater the match
that it is that organism.
• Enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay
– Quantitative and Qualitative results
– http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animati
Attack of the Superbugs
• 1.2.2 - This activity investigates the
mechanisms by which DNA from one bacterial
cell is transferred to another bacterial cell.
– This process is called CONJUGATION.
Attack of the Superbugs
• To see if we can induce conjugation making an
antibiotic resistant bacterium
• We are using two strains of Escherichia coli
– Strain 1 – has a gene on its DNA that codes for
streptomycin resistance
– Strain 2 – has a gene found on the plasmid DNA
that codes for ampicillin resistance.
• We had growth on three plates.
• If conjugation had not occurred, we would not
have seen growth on the plate with strep and
amp in it. Plasmid was conjugated.
Transduction and Transformation
• Transduction is the process by which DNA is
transferred from one bacterium to another by
a virus
• Bacterial transformation is the process by
which bacterial cells take up naked DNA
molecules from the surrounding media.
– Not sure how this occurs.
Antibiotic Resistance
• Lab showed how bacteria can establish
antibiotic resistance.
• Bad!
Hearing Loss
• Put a pic of the ear on your sheet with
structures labeled
– Sensionuerial vs conductive
• Related to the use of Sue’s use of antibiotics due to
Neiserria meningitidis
• Conductive hearing problems are those that
disrupt the conduction of sound through the
outer and middle ear.
Conductive Hearing Loss
• Affects hearing before the sound reaches the
cochlea and the nerve receptors of the inner
Sensorineural deafness
• Sensorineural deafness is decreased hearing
or hearing loss that occurs from damage to
the inner ear, the auditory nerve, or the
• Sensorineural hearing loss is most often due
to a loss of hair cells (sensory receptors in the
inner ear).
• Cochlear Implant
• Hearing Aid
Causes of Conduction Deafness
• Otitis Media
Middle ear infection
Chronic suppurative otitis media –
1.Peferation of the tympanic membrane
2. Bacterial infection
• Ossicles of the middle ear harden and become
less able to vibrate.
• Approximately one-third of all persons with
impaired hearing have this condition.
• Hereditary
• Damage to the ossicles, e.g. by serious infection or
head injury.
• Perforated (pierced) eardrum, which can be caused
by an untreated ear infection (chronic suppurative
otitis media), head injury or a blow to the ear, or
from poking something in your ear.
• Hearing aids -usually effective for conductive
hearing loss.
Vaccines – 3 major, out of 6
• Types of Vaccines
– Attenuated – live virus, slightly weakened,
changed so that you get an immune response but
not the disease
– Killed – virus is dead but still elicites an immune
– Toxoid - vaccine is designed to trigger an immune
response to a toxin produced by a bacterium or
virus, not to the organism itself.
Unit 2 How To Screen What Is in
Your Genes
Genetic Testing
• Genetic testing is the use of molecular
methods to determine if someone has a
genetic disorder, will develop one, or is a
carrier of a genetic illness and involves
sampling a person’s DNA and examining the
chromosomes or genes for abnormalities.
• 2.1.1. Genetic Counselor
• 2.1.2 Screening our own genes - PTC gene
• http://www.sumanasinc.com/webcontent/animations/
• Know the steps and the temps for each step
• 2.1.3 Restriction Enzymes
– What are they
– Sticky vs blunt
- SNPs
• Gene Therapy
– Gene therapy is the practice of inserting
functional genes into a person’s genome to
replace faulty genes
– Viral Vectors vs Non-viral
• Viral – can be engineered, enters cells easily but can
cause an immune response
• Non-viral – plasmids, don’t enters cells as easily
• Reproductive Technology
– in vitro fertilization (IVF)
– preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD)
Unit 3 How to Conquer Cancer
• Regulation in the cell cycle
• Proto-oncognes become oncogenes through a
disruption in the cell cycle.
• Normally, cells will detect a mutation or that a
certain point in the cell cycle has been
disrupted and cause the cell to undergo
• Oncogenes lead to cancerous cells
DNA Microarray - What Are They?
• Technology in which the activity (whether a
gene is turned on or off) of thousands of
genes can be measured.
• mRNA is attached to the wells
• Conjucated with cDNA (complimentary) along
with a flourescent tag.
• Color that is emited is detected.
• Detects for the level of expression of mRNA
3.2 Cancer Screens and
3.3 Treating Cancer
• Why do we do screens?
• How do we treat cancer?
– Radiation
– Chemotherapy
– Biofeedback therapy
3.4 Building a Better Cancer Treatment
• Personalized Medicine
– SNPS, haplotypes
– How do you determine which medication to give
looking at SNPs?
Clinical Trials
Double Blind **
Single Blind
• What can nanotechnology do?
• How can we use it in cancer?
Unit 4 How To Prevail When Organs
• GFP Lab
– Why hdyrophobic column
– Why CaCl2 and heat shock
– Why lysozyme
– Why binding buffer
ESRD and Organ Transplantation
• Know the tests that are used to diagnose ESRD
Kidney Vs Heart Transplant
• Both are used for patients that are ill and in
need of an organ.
• Both must utilize tissue typing.
• Both can have organ rejection.
Heart Transplant
 More extreme of a surgery
 Kidney = laproscopic
 Heart = opening entire chest cavity
 Blood has to be rerouted during surgery to a
bypass machine
 Kidney = just clamp the vessels to the kidney that is to
be removed
 Longer recovery time
 Needs to be performed ASAP vs wait time on a
kidney – WHY?
Transplantation of Other Tissues
 Which of the following can we currently
 Heart
 Intestine
 Kidney
 Liver
 Pancreas
 Lung
 Bone/Tendons
 Cornea
 Skin
• Which of the following organs is the only
organ that can regenerate itself?
– Heart
– Intestine
– Kidney
– Liver
– Pancreas
– Lung
The Liver!
• A portion of a liver can be transplanted and
can grow while the donor ‘s original liver can
grow back to normal as well.
Those Involved
 Anesthesiologist
 Provides medicine to put patient under during surgery
 Transplant Surgeon
 Specializes in the transplant of a certain organ
 Preoperative Nurse
 Works with the surgeon handing her tools and
provides help when needed
 Pharmacist
 Provides ant-rejection medication to patient after
• Using animal parts for humans
– Plenty of animals, plenty of parts
• Problem – we can reject the organ (HLA)
– Introduction of animal viruses into humans
• Problem – clone the animals – can lead to
inferior structures
Tissue Engineering
• Using patients cells to grow organs and tissues
in the lab
– Could grow a replacement organ??
– Bladder would be easier than intestines – due to
the multiple functions of intestines
• What are some negatives?

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