Personality and Relationships Measuring Personality Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) Jenkens Activity Survey (Type A/Type B) NEO Personal Inventory (Big 5) Big Five Personality Traits 1. Extroversion 2. Neuroticism 3. Openness to Experience 4. Conscientiousness 5. Agreeableness OCEAN McCrae & Costa, 1990 Extroversion Extroverts: High sociability, impulsiveness, like parties, crave excitement, focused on outer world, more friends Introverts: quiet, reserved, reflective, like to think things through before speaking, focused within Cetola & Prinkey, 1986 “introverts are habitually in a state of greater arousal than extraverts, and consequently they show lower sensory thresholds, and greater reactions to sensory stimulation.” Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969 Lemon Test Stereotypes of introverts/extroverts? Wundt’s Hedonic Curve Adapted from Cetola & Prinkey, 1986 Hedonic Curve for Introverts and Extroverts Cetola & Prinkey, 1986 Neuroticism Unsociable Withdrawn Wish to indulge in social activity but fear of being rejected takes over Different from introversion Anxiety, self-consciousness, emotionally unstable High: anxious, hostile, self-conscious, and impulsive 1990 Opposite: Emotionally stable Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969 McCrae & Costa, Openness to Experience High “Receptiveness to new ideas, approaches, experiences” (p.41-42) Intellectually curious Often appreciates art, literature, travel More likely to hold unconventional beliefs “free spirits” Low Prefer the familiar and practical Resists change Not necessarily close minded or intolerant of others McCrae & Costa Conscientiousness High Achievement-orientated Organized, dutiful, high level of motivation Workaholics? Low Easy-going Less exacting with themselves and with others Slackers? Agreeableness Generous and trusting of others and want everyone to get along Optimistic Opposite: Antagonism Tough-minded, non-accommodating of others Place the interest of themselves above the interest of others Often seen as uncooperative Which of these would you want your surgeon to be? Lawyer? Does this have anything to do with face theory? Opposites Attract? Marriage partners often have similarities (religion ethnicity, attraciveness, values) but complimentary personalities McCrae & Costa, 1990 Personality more important than other factors in predicting marital adjustment Difference-detecting mechanisms Buss, 1996 I’m Outgoing and She’s Reserved: The Reciprocal Dynamics of Personality in Close Friendships in Young Adulthood Nelson, Thorne, & Shapiro, 2011 Interpersonal Theory Self Expansion Theory Overall, “a series of compromises and adaptations evolve over a period of time” (p. 160) in any successful relationship McCrae & Costa, 1990 Desirable Personalities In a long- term mate Extroversion- ambitious about career Neuroticism- emotionally stable Agreeableness- kind Conscientiousness- dependable, hardworking Openness- intelligent, open-minded, creative Buss, 1996 Desirable Personalities In a friendship Extroversion- bold, self-confident, ambitious about career Neuroticism- emotionally stable Agreeableness- kind Conscientiousness- hardworking, dependable Openness- open- minded, creative, intelligent, wide range of knowledge Buss, 1996 Undesirable Personalities Low on agreeableness Neglect, verbal abuse, physical abuse, sexual infidelity, inconsiderateness, self-centeredness Emotionally unstable (neurotic) Possessive, jealous, dependent, abusive, inconsiderate, physically selfabsorbed, self centered Other Undesirable Personalities Low Conscientiousness High instances of sexual infidelity, especially men Low Openness Sexualizing of others “treating members of the opposite sex as sex objects; commenting about the attractiveness of others; expressing sexual desire for a movie star” (Buss, 1996). Personality and Sexual Infidelity Buss, 1996 100 married couples- took personality test as newlyweds and questioned 4 years later Low Conscientious men AND women likely to cheat Women high in openness to experiences likely to cheat Submissive partners are likely to be cheated on Nonverbal Communication and Personality When it comes to conversational distance: Extraverts- likely to choose to sit opposite of other person and avoid positions that would put them at an angle Introverts- choose positions that would keep that at more of a distance (visually and physically) sit diagonally Knapp & Hall, 2006 Nonverbal Communication and Personality Dominant people show more eye contact than submissive people Extraverted, Agreeable, and Open people show more gazing activity (eye contact) than other personalities Knapp & Hall, 2006 What does this mean for relationships? Flirting? Nonverbal Communication and Personality Is there a relationship between personality/temperament and certain body types? Some people believe there is a correlation I feel most of the time _____, _________, and ______ Calm Anxious Cheerful Contented (often content. Happy or at ease) Relaxed Confident Tense Impetuous (impulsive) Complacent (self-satisfied) Reticent (reserved- don’t say everything you know) Energetic Self-conscious When I study or work I seem to be ______, ______, and ___________. Efficient Enthusiastic Reflective Placid (calm, quiet) Sluggish Competitive Leisurely Meticulous Precise Determined Thoughtful cooperative Socially, I am ____, _____, and ________. Outgoing Affable (shows warmth and friendliness) Tolerant Gentle-tempered Considerate Awkward Affected (emotionally moved easily) Soft-tempered Argumentative Shy Talkative Hot-tempered I am rather ____, ______, and ____. Active Warm Domineering Introspective Forgiving Courageous Suspicious Cool Sympathetic Serious Soft-hearted Enterprising Other people consider me rather ___, _____ and _______. Generous Adventurous Withdrawn Dominant Optimistic Affectionate Reckless Detached Sensitive Kind Cautious Dependent Pick one of each three Assertive, relaxed, tense Hot-tempered, cool, warm Withdrawn, sociable, active Confident, tactful, kind Dependent, dominant, detached Enterprising, affable, anxious Section A Dependent Forgiving Calm Sympathetic Relaxed Complacent Contented Sluggish Soft-hearted Generous Affectionate Kind Sociable Placid Soft-tempered Leisurely Warm Cooperative Affected Affable Tolerant Section B Dominant Argumentative Cheerful Talkative Confident Active Energetic Impetuous Efficient Enthusiastic Domineering Courageous Enterprising Competitive Adventurous Determined Reckless Outgoing Assertive Hot Tempered optimistic Section C Detached Tense Shy Awkward Anxious Cool Reticent Suspicious Self-Conscious Introspective Meticulous Serious Reflective Cautious Precise Thoughtful Considerate Tactful Sensitive Withdrawn Gentle-tempered 6 5 10 Wells & Siegel (1961) stereotypes about personalities of people with different body types Knapp & Hall, 2006 Buss, D. M. (1996). The five- factor model of personality: Theoretical perspectives. J. S. Wiggins (Ed.) New York: The Guilford Press. Cetola, H., & Prinkey, K. (1986). Introversionextraversion and loud commercials. Psychology and Marketing, 3, 123-132. Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. (1969). Personality structure and measurement. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul Limited. Knapp, M. L., & Hall, J. A. (2006). Nonverbal communication in human interaction (6th ed.) Belmont, CA: Thomson Higher Education. McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1990). Personality in adulthood. New York: The Guilford Press. Nelson, P. A., Thorne, A., & Shapiro, L.A. (2011). I’m outgoing and she’s reserved: The reciprocal dynamics of personality in close friendships in young adulthood. Journal of Personality, 79 (5), p. 1113-1147.