Personality and Relationships (Maura Lecture)

Report
Personality and
Relationships
Measuring Personality
 Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
 Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ)
 Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI)
 Jenkens Activity Survey (Type A/Type B)
 NEO Personal Inventory (Big 5)
Big Five Personality Traits
1. Extroversion
2. Neuroticism
3. Openness to Experience
4. Conscientiousness
5. Agreeableness
OCEAN
McCrae & Costa, 1990
Extroversion
 Extroverts: High sociability, impulsiveness, like
parties, crave excitement, focused on outer
world, more friends
 Introverts: quiet, reserved, reflective, like to
think things through before speaking, focused
within Cetola & Prinkey, 1986
 “introverts are habitually in a state of greater
arousal than extraverts, and consequently they
show lower sensory thresholds, and greater
reactions to sensory stimulation.” Eysenck & Eysenck,
1969
 Lemon Test
 Stereotypes of introverts/extroverts?
Wundt’s Hedonic Curve
Adapted from Cetola & Prinkey, 1986
Hedonic Curve for Introverts and
Extroverts
Cetola & Prinkey, 1986
Neuroticism
 Unsociable
 Withdrawn
 Wish to indulge in social activity but fear of being rejected
takes over
 Different from introversion
 Anxiety, self-consciousness, emotionally unstable
 High: anxious, hostile, self-conscious, and impulsive
1990
 Opposite: Emotionally stable
Eysenck & Eysenck, 1969
McCrae & Costa,
Openness to Experience
 High
 “Receptiveness to new ideas, approaches, experiences”
(p.41-42)
 Intellectually curious
 Often appreciates art, literature, travel
 More likely to hold unconventional beliefs
 “free spirits”
 Low
 Prefer the familiar and practical
 Resists change
 Not necessarily close minded or intolerant of others
McCrae & Costa
Conscientiousness
 High
 Achievement-orientated
 Organized, dutiful, high level of motivation
 Workaholics?
 Low
 Easy-going
 Less exacting with themselves and with others
 Slackers?
Agreeableness
 Generous and trusting of others and want everyone to
get along
 Optimistic
 Opposite: Antagonism
 Tough-minded, non-accommodating of others
 Place the interest of themselves above the interest of others
 Often seen as uncooperative
Which of these would you want your surgeon to be? Lawyer?
Does this have anything to do with face theory?
Opposites Attract?
 Marriage partners often have similarities (religion
ethnicity, attraciveness, values) but
complimentary personalities McCrae & Costa, 1990
 Personality more important than other factors in
predicting marital adjustment
 Difference-detecting mechanisms
Buss, 1996
 I’m Outgoing and She’s Reserved: The Reciprocal
Dynamics of Personality in Close Friendships in
Young Adulthood Nelson, Thorne, & Shapiro, 2011
 Interpersonal Theory
 Self Expansion Theory
Overall, “a series of compromises and adaptations evolve
over a period of time” (p. 160) in any successful
relationship McCrae & Costa, 1990
Desirable Personalities
 In a long- term mate
Extroversion- ambitious about career
Neuroticism- emotionally stable
Agreeableness- kind
Conscientiousness- dependable,
hardworking
Openness- intelligent, open-minded,
creative
Buss, 1996
Desirable Personalities
 In a friendship
Extroversion- bold, self-confident,
ambitious about career
Neuroticism- emotionally stable
Agreeableness- kind
Conscientiousness- hardworking,
dependable
Openness- open- minded, creative,
intelligent, wide range of knowledge
Buss, 1996
Undesirable Personalities
 Low on agreeableness
Neglect, verbal abuse, physical abuse,
sexual infidelity, inconsiderateness,
self-centeredness
 Emotionally unstable (neurotic)
Possessive, jealous, dependent,
abusive, inconsiderate, physically selfabsorbed, self centered
Other Undesirable Personalities
 Low Conscientiousness
 High instances of sexual infidelity, especially
men
 Low Openness
 Sexualizing of others
 “treating members of the opposite sex as sex
objects; commenting about the attractiveness
of others; expressing sexual desire for a movie
star” (Buss, 1996).
Personality and Sexual Infidelity
 Buss, 1996
 100 married couples- took personality test as
newlyweds and questioned 4 years later
 Low Conscientious men AND women likely to cheat
 Women high in openness to experiences likely to
cheat
 Submissive partners are likely to be cheated on
Nonverbal Communication and
Personality
When it comes to conversational distance:
 Extraverts- likely to choose to sit opposite of other
person and avoid positions that would put them at an
angle
 Introverts- choose positions that would keep that at
more of a distance (visually and physically) sit
diagonally
Knapp & Hall, 2006
Nonverbal Communication and
Personality
 Dominant people show
more eye contact than
submissive people
 Extraverted, Agreeable,
and Open people show
more gazing activity
(eye contact) than
other personalities Knapp &
Hall, 2006
 What does this mean
for relationships?
 Flirting?
Nonverbal Communication and
Personality
 Is there a relationship
between
personality/temperament
and certain body types?
 Some people believe
there is a correlation
I feel most of the time _____, _________, and ______
 Calm
 Anxious
 Cheerful
 Contented (often content. Happy or at ease)
 Relaxed
 Confident
 Tense
 Impetuous (impulsive)
 Complacent (self-satisfied)
 Reticent (reserved- don’t say everything you know)
 Energetic
 Self-conscious
When I study or work I seem to be ______, ______,
and ___________.
 Efficient
 Enthusiastic
 Reflective
 Placid (calm, quiet)
 Sluggish
 Competitive
 Leisurely
 Meticulous
 Precise
 Determined
 Thoughtful
 cooperative
Socially, I am ____, _____, and
________.
 Outgoing
 Affable (shows warmth and friendliness)
 Tolerant
 Gentle-tempered
 Considerate
 Awkward
 Affected (emotionally moved easily)
 Soft-tempered
 Argumentative
 Shy
 Talkative
 Hot-tempered
I am rather ____, ______, and
____.
 Active
 Warm
 Domineering
 Introspective
 Forgiving
 Courageous
 Suspicious
 Cool
 Sympathetic
 Serious
 Soft-hearted
 Enterprising
Other people consider me rather
___, _____ and _______.
 Generous
 Adventurous
 Withdrawn
 Dominant
 Optimistic
 Affectionate
 Reckless
 Detached
 Sensitive
 Kind
 Cautious
 Dependent
Pick one of each three
 Assertive, relaxed, tense
 Hot-tempered, cool, warm
 Withdrawn, sociable, active
 Confident, tactful, kind
 Dependent, dominant, detached
 Enterprising, affable, anxious
Section A
 Dependent
 Forgiving
 Calm
 Sympathetic
 Relaxed
 Complacent
 Contented
 Sluggish
 Soft-hearted
 Generous
 Affectionate
 Kind
 Sociable
 Placid
 Soft-tempered
 Leisurely
 Warm
 Cooperative
 Affected
 Affable
 Tolerant
Section B
 Dominant
 Argumentative
 Cheerful
 Talkative
 Confident
 Active
 Energetic
 Impetuous
 Efficient
 Enthusiastic
 Domineering
 Courageous
 Enterprising
 Competitive
 Adventurous
 Determined
 Reckless
 Outgoing
 Assertive
 Hot Tempered
 optimistic
Section C
 Detached
 Tense
 Shy
 Awkward
 Anxious
 Cool
 Reticent
 Suspicious
 Self-Conscious
 Introspective
 Meticulous
 Serious
 Reflective
 Cautious
 Precise
 Thoughtful
 Considerate
 Tactful
 Sensitive
 Withdrawn
 Gentle-tempered
6
5
10
Wells & Siegel (1961) stereotypes about personalities
of people with different body types Knapp & Hall, 2006
 Buss, D. M. (1996). The five- factor model of
personality: Theoretical perspectives. J. S. Wiggins (Ed.)
New York: The Guilford Press.
 Cetola, H., & Prinkey, K. (1986). Introversionextraversion and loud commercials. Psychology and
Marketing, 3, 123-132.
 Eysenck, H. J., & Eysenck, S. B. (1969). Personality
structure and measurement. London: Routledge & Kegan
Paul Limited.
 Knapp, M. L., & Hall, J. A. (2006). Nonverbal
communication in human interaction (6th ed.) Belmont,
CA: Thomson Higher Education.
 McCrae, R. R., & Costa, P. T. (1990). Personality in
adulthood. New York: The Guilford Press.
 Nelson, P. A., Thorne, A., & Shapiro, L.A. (2011). I’m
outgoing and she’s reserved: The reciprocal dynamics of
personality in close friendships in young adulthood.
Journal of Personality, 79 (5), p. 1113-1147.

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