Sophie Scholl Sources
Sophie Scholl
Born: 9° May 1921 Forchtenberg am Kocher
Father: Robert Scholl, occupation: Mayor
Religion: Lutheran
Source 1:
Lutheran study Bible and Silver chain
belonging to Sophie Scholl found in her
prison cell 22nd February 1943
Source 2:
The Town Hall in Forchtenberg, birthplace of
Sophie Scholl
Source 3:
Sophie Scholl’s badge of the League of German Girls (the Bund
Deutscher Mädel ) and a photograph of her from the movement
in 1932.
Source 4:
People’s Court transcript: 1943
Robert Scholl, formally Mayor of Forchtenberg am
You have been found guilty of criticising Adolf Hitler and
the Nazi regime by saying:
"this Hitler is God's scourge on mankind, and if this war
doesn't end soon the Russians will be sitting in Berlin."
to one of your employees. You shall be imprisoned for 4
Source 5:
Hans Scholl (left), Sophie Scholl (center), and Christoph Probst (right), leaders of the
White Rose resistance organization. Munich, Germany, 1942
Source 6:
One of six anti-Nazi leaflets calling people to resist the regime distributed
by the White Rose movement.
In the Name of the German People in the action against:
1. Hans Fritz Scholl, Munich, born at Ingersheim, September 22, 1918,
2. Sophia Magdalena Scholl, Munich, born at Forchtenberg, May 9, 1921, and
3. Christoph Hermann Probst, of Aldrans bei Innsbruck, born at Murnau, November 6, 1919,
now in investigative custody regarding treasonous assistance to the enemy, preparing to
commit high treason, and weakening of the nation's armed security, the People's Court,
first Senate, pursuant to the trial held on February 22, 1943, in which the officers were:
President of the People's Court Dr. Freisler, Presiding, Director of the Regional (Bavarian)
Judiciary Stier, SS Group Leader Breithaupt, SA Group Leader Bunge, State Secretary and SA
Group Leader Kaglmaier, and, representing the Attorney General to the Supreme Court of
the Reich, Reich Attorney Weyersberg,
That the accused have in time of war by means of leaflets called for the sabotage of the war
effort and armaments and for the overthrow of the National Socialist way of life of our
people, have propagated defeatist ideas, and have most vulgarly defamed the Führer,
thereby giving aid to the enemy of the Reich and weakening the armed security of the
On this account they are to be punished by Death.
Their honour and rights as citizens are forfeited for all time.
Sentencing of Hans and Sophie Scholl and
Christoph Probst, February 22, 1943.
Source 8:
"How can we expect righteousness to
prevail when there is hardly anyone
willing to give himself up individually
to a righteous cause. Such a fine,
sunny day, and I have to go. But what
does my death matter, if through us
thousands of people are awakened
and stirred to action?“
Else Gebel shared Sophie Scholl's cell and recorded her last words before being taken
away to be executed.
Source 9:
Guillotine in Stadelheim prison where Sophie Scholl was beheaded on the 22nd February
1943, Munich, Germany
Source 10:
Barthel Schink Sources
Steinbrück of the Edelweiss Pirates and twelve of his followers were executed without
trial on November 10, 1944, in front of hundreds of curious onlookers. Here is a list of
the victims:
Hans Steinbrück, born April 12, 1921, age 23
Günther Schwarz, born August 26, 1928, age 16
Gustav Bermel, born August 11, 1927, age 17
Johann Müller, born January 29, 1928, age 16
Franz Rheinberger, born February 22, 1927, age 17
Adolf Schütz, born January 3, 1926, age 18
Barthel Schink, born November 25, 1927, age 16
Roland Lorent, born March 12, 1920, age 24
Peter Hüppeler, born January 9, 1913, age 31
Josef Moll, born July 17, 1903, age 41
Wilhelm Kratz, born January 6, 1902, age 42
Heinrich Kratina, born January 15, 1906, age 38
Johann Krausen, born January 10, 1887, age 57
Diary entry of an Ehrenfeld resident November 10th 1944
Source 1:
Metal badge and symbol of
the Edelweiss pirates
belonging to Barthel Schink
Bartholomäus "Barthel" Schink 1944
Source 2:
We march by banks of Ruhr and Rhine
And smash the Hitler Youth in twain.
Our song is freedom, love and life,
We’re the Pirates of the Edelweiss.
Anti-Nazi song transcribed by a member of the Edelweiss Pirates 1942
Source 3:
Apart from gatherings on street corners, the Edelweißpiraten engaged in hiking and camping
trips, defying the restrictions on free movement, which kept them away from the prying
eyes of the totalitarian regime. They were highly antagonistic to the Hitler Youth, ambushing
their patrols and taking great pride in beating them up. One of their slogans was "Eternal
War on the Hitler Youth". As one subgroup, the Navajos, sang:
Intelligence from the British Government
The headquarters of the American Counter-Intelligence Corps in Frankfurt reported in May 1946
that Edelweiss activities were known throughout the British and American Zones.
Source 4:
The Hitler Youth are hereby
forbidden from using the
Kohte (German black tent) it
shall be banned until further
notice. Those who use it
such as the Edelweiss
Pirates, are Bolsheviks
(communists) and shall be
Gestapo orders 1935
The question “What is an Aryan?” would be asked at the
campfire, to which came the reply, “Blond like Hitler. Tall like
Goebbels. Slim like Goering.” Touché.
Source 5:
Source 6:
"Every child knows who
the Edelweiss Pirates
are. They are
everywhere; there are
more of them than
there are Hitler Youth...
They beat up the
patrols... They never
take no for an answer."
Member of the Hitler Youth 1941
Source 7:
During the war, many Edelweißpiraten supported
the Allies and assisted deserters from the German
army. Some groups also collected propaganda
leaflets dropped by Allied aircraft and pushed
them through letterboxes. It is believed that they
carried out several assassinations of Gestapo
People’s Court Official 1946
Source 8:
Photograph of the Edelweiss Pirates 1930s.
Note their dress. This was deliberately unlike the fashion
of the Hitler Youth members. Their style was a cross
between 1930s America and German folklore
Source 9:
Naturally, clashes between the Edelweiss Pirates and the Nazi power apparatus
grew more intense. The Nazi drive for total control led to even more irrational
measures of surveillance and coercive brutality. Raids were conducted, arrests
were made, young people were branded or had their heads shaved. They were
sent to detention camps for "corrective education," or were submitted to
criminal trials. On December 7th, 1942, the Dusseldorf Gestapo raided 28 groups
containing 739 adolescents and hanged the ringleaders in public.
Official record. Dusseldorf Newspaper, 1942.
Source 10:
Swing Youth Sources
The Swing Kids (also known as Swing Youth) are a group of jazz
and swing, mainly found in Hamburg and Berlin. They are
composed of 14 to 18-year-old boys and girls in high school,
most of them are middle or upper-class students, but with some
apprentice workers as well. They admired the British and
American way of life, defining themselves in swing music and
opposing the Nazi ideology, especially the Hitlerjugend ("Hitler
British Espionage record 1939
Source 1:
In this poster, a Marxist looking chap broadcasts from
London, Moscow, and other enemy states, while a German
listens in the darkness, trying to conceal his crime.
Source 2:
Translation: Swing dancing forbidden
Source 3:
Teenagers favoured
swing music and
swing dancing,
because it put a
completely different,
more attractive
awareness of life (the
"American way of
life") against the HJ
unity drill.
Source 4:
Therefore the danced
zest for life is a
dangerous contradiction
against propagated
cultivation and order.
The Swing-Youth will be
fought more strictly due
to the outbreak of the
Reich orders to the Gestapo.
November 1939
Source 5:
“There the youth should first be
given thrashings and then put
through the severest drill and set to
work. It must be made clear that
they will never be allowed to go
back to their studies. We must
investigate how much
encouragement they have had
from their parents. If they have
encouraged them, then they should
also be put into a concentration
camp and (have) their property
confiscated.” Himmler, 1941
Source 6:

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