Emotions in the Workplace Module from SIOP Emotions in the Workplace • Emotions are states of feeling that are often intense, last for only a short time, and are clearly directed at (and caused by) someone or some circumstance. – Positive emotions include joy, pride, relief, hope, love, and compassion. – Negative emotions include anger, anxiety, fear, guilt, shame, sadness, envy, and disgust. Emotions in the Workplace • Has anyone here ever worked in retail or as a server in a restaurant? • Did you ever have to be happy when you didn’t want to in order to please a customer? • That’s called emotional labor! Emotional Labor • Emotional labor is the need to manage emotions to complete job duties successfully. – Two major types: • Surface Acting: Painting on or faking the appropriate emotional display (i.e. cheesy smile) • Deep Acting: Attempting to change your emotions to fit the demand (i.e. trying to actually feel happy) • Why do we do this? For increased tips, increased sales, the boss demands it, etc. Emotional Contagion • Why do we emotionally labor? So customers can “catch” the emotion… • Emotional contagion shows that one person can “catch” or “be infected by” the emotions of another person. • Happy customers are paying customers!! Class Discussion • Take a minute and talk to your neighbor. • When have you engaged in emotional labor? • When have you seen others doing emotional labor? • Is it a good thing? A bad thing? Further Reading • Allen, J. A. Pugh, S. D., Grandey, A. A., & Groth, M. (2010). Display Rules and Emotional Labor: The Moderating Role of Customer Orientation. Human Performance, 23(2), 101-115. • Bono, J.E., Foldes, H.J., Vinson, G., Muros, J.P. (2007). Workplace emotions: The role of supervision and leadership. Journal of Applied Psychology, 92(5), 1357-1367. • Grandey, A. (2003). When "the show must go on": Surface and deep acting as predictors of emotional exhaustion and service delivery. Academy of Mangement Journal, 46 (1), 86-96. • Rupp, D.E., & Spencer, S. (2006). When Customers Lash Out: The Effects of Customer Interactional Injustice on Emotional Labor and the Mediating Role of Discrete Emotions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(4), 971-978.