English Phonetics and Phonology : A Practical Course.

Report
IA901 2012 Session Two
• Phonetics v phonology
• Describing the sounds of English
• Teaching pronunciation
Adrian Underhill’s Phonemic Chart
1. How useful do you think this
chart is for describing the
sounds of spoken English?
2. Have you used this chart in a
classroom?
3. Should knowledge of this chart
be a prerequisite for English
language teachers?
4. Do you have any sympathy for this point of view?
Underhill, A. 2005 Sound Foundations : Learning and Teaching Pronunciation. 2nd Edn. Macmillan
Phonetics & Phonology
Phonetics & Phonology
Phonetics is concerned with the way we make, transmit, and
receive speech sounds. There are three main branches of
phonetics: articulatory, acoustic, and auditory.
Phonology relates to the sound systems of languages and
concerns itself with the way sounds relate to meaning in a
given language.
Phonetics v Phonology
Phonetics: “the study of the production of speech
sounds by speakers, their perception by hearers and
their acoustic properties”
Phonology: “the branch of linguistics which
investigates the ways in which speech sounds are used
systematically to form words and utterances”
Katamba, F. (1989) An Introduction to Phonology
Longman. p.60
Phonetics & Phonology
1. What’s the difference between a VOWEL and a
CONSONANT?
2. How many VOWELS are there in English?
3. How many CONSONANTS?
vowels
consonants
continuants
/ sonorants
Underhill, A. 2005 Sound Foundations : Learning and Teaching Pronunciation. 2nd Edn. Macmillan
Underhill, A. 2005 Sound Foundations : Learning and Teaching Pronunciation. 2nd Edn. Macmillan
An experiment…
Four Vowels
When the following vowels are produced, what
happens to the position of the lips, jaw, and
tongue?
1
2
3
4
i:
u: æ ɑ:
Four Vowels
i:
u:
æ ɑ:
i:
u: æ ɑ:
Another experiment…
Cardinal vowels
Roach, P. 2009 English Phonetics and Phonology : A Practical Course. 4th
Edn. Cambridge University Press. p.12
Do speakers of British English produce
cardinal vowels?
Roach, P. 2009 English Phonetics and Phonology : A Practical Course. 4th
Edn. Cambridge University Press. p.12
Vowels in British English
Roach, P. (2009) English Phonetics and Phonology : A Practical Course. 4th
Edn. Cambridge University Press
Vowels in British English
Yet another experiment
- on a blank piece of paper, can you draw a
human mouth in 10 seconds?
- now – in the same amount of time – can you
draw the inside of a human mouth?
In how much detail could you label these two diagrams?
uvula
houses the glottis
The consonants
Let’s see if anyone’s still awake! Look at these words for 10 seconds:
uvular
labiodental
dental
alveolar / post-alveolar
bilabial
velar
palatal
glottal
Terms used to describe place of articulation:
1. both lips
bilabial
2. lips and teeth
labiodental
3. teeth
dental
4. alveolar ridge
alveolar / post-alveolar
5. hard palate
palatal
6. soft palate (velum)
velar
7. glottis
glottal
8. uvula
uvular
Are any of these terms useful for your students?
uvula
Underhill, A. 2005 Sound Foundations : Learning and Teaching Pronunciation. 2nd Edn. Macmillan
My attempts at visual representations in the classroom
uvula
uvula
uvula
uvula
uvula
uvula
uvula
Tactile experiences?
uvula
Manner of articulation
Place and manner of articulation : an experiment
How would you describe the difference between
the way it feels to produce each of the following
pairs of phonemes?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
/m/ and /n/
/p/ and /m/
/v/ and /ð/
/t/ and /s/
/l/ and /n/
/ʃ/ and /tʃ/
7. /ŋ/ and /n/
8. /ŋ/ and /g/
9. /w/ and /m/
10. /h/ and /s/
11. /j/ and /w/
12. /j/ and /r/
fricatives
affricates plosives
nasals
laterals
approximants
A complete closure in the vocal tract causes a build up of air pressure
which is then released explosively
A complete closure in the mouth leads to air escaping through the nose
Like plosives but with a slower release of air. Friction is audible after an
initial ‘explosive’ sounds
Partial closure, with air escaping around the sides of the closure
Two vocal organs move closely together so as to create audible friction as
air passes between them
Could be described as “semi-consonants” or “semi-vowels”. These
sounds are phonetically like vowels as they are made without audible
friction, but linguistically, they are like consonants because of the way
they are distributed (i.e. they occur at the margin of syllables).
/l/ and /r/ : approximants / frictionless continuants
/w/ and /j/ : semi-vowels
plosives
A complete closure in the vocal tract causes a build up of air pressure which is
then released explosively
nasals
A complete closure in the mouth leads to air escaping through the nose
affricates
Like plosives but with a slower release of air. Friction is audible after an initial
‘explosive’ sounds
laterals
Partial closure, with air escaping around the sides of the closure
fricatives
Two vocal organs move closely together so as to create audible friction as air
passes between them
approximants
Could be described as “semi-consonants” or “semi-vowels”. These sounds are
phonetically like vowels as they are made without audible friction, but
linguistically, they are like consonants because of the way they are distributed
(i.e. they occur at the margin of syllables).
/l/ and /r/ : approximants / frictionless continuants
/w/ and /j/ : semi-vowels
Place and manner of articulation : an experiment
Does the terminology we just looked at make
description easier for you? Do you think it also
makes it easier for the learner?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
/m/ and /n/
/p/ and /m/
/v/ and /ð/
/t/ and /s/
/l/ and /n/
/ʃ/ and /tʃ/
7. /ŋ/ and /n/
8. /ŋ/ and /g/
9. /w/ and /m/
10. /h/ and /s/
11. /j/ and /w/
12. /j/ and /r/
Place and manner of articulation
Roach, P. 2009 English Phonetics and Phonology : A Practical Course. 4th
Edn. Cambridge University Press. p.52
1. /m/ and /n/
2. /p/ and /m/
3. /v/ and /ð/
4. /t/ and /s/
5. /l/ and /n/
6. /ʃ/ and /tʃ/
7. /ŋ/ and /n/
8. /ŋ/ and /g/
9. /w/ and /m/
10. /h/ and /s/
11. /j/ and /w/
12. /j/ and /r/
In the classroom
How are you?
I’m fine thank you.
There are brown cows all around.
Why are we doing this strange exercise?
Phonemes in the classroom
from The Centre for Independent Language Learning
(http://www2.elc.polyu.edu.hk/CILL/default4.htm)
Minimal pairs in the classroom
from Mark Hancock’s Pronunciation Games
Minimal pairs in the classroom
Key:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
0.
ship
sheep
ten
tin
bet
bat
cat
cut
want
won’t
(example minimal pairs taken from www.shiporsheep.com)
References and further reading
Crystal, D. 2006 How Language Works. Penguin
Culpeper, J. et al (eds) 2009 English Language: Description, Variation
and Context. Palgrave Macmillan
Field, J. 2003 “Promoting perception: lexical segmentation in L2
Listening”, ELT Journal 57/4
Katamba, F. 1989 An Introduction to Phonology. Longman
Roach, P. 2009 English Phonetics and Phonology : A Practical Course.
4th Edn. Cambridge University Press
Roca, I. and Johnson, W. 1999 A Course in Phonology. Blackwell
Related journal articles
SPEECHANT
1. What, according to the authors, are the advantages of using Speechant?
2. Does Speechant seem like a system that you could use effectively in
your own teaching?
3. Can you see any potential disadvantages to using the Speechant
system?
VOICE-SETTING PHONOLOGY
1. What, according to Scott Thornbury, was ‘wrong’ with the teaching of
pronunciation when he wrote this article (back in 1993)?
2. What suggestions does he make to remedy this?
3. What do you think about his suggestions? Can / would you implement
them in your own teaching?
IA901 Essay Assignment
TUTORIALS
• Please email me to book a tutorial when you have chosen
an essay question (but don’t rush your essay choice).
• Feel free to book a tutorial if you are having difficulty
choosing a question.
• I will happy to continue to respond to questions by email
and see you for tutorials, but the support that I can offer
will be constrained by time. I can’t be particularly helpful if
you send me questions on the 2nd of December!

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