Higher Education and Economic Development in Africa

Report
University of Ghana
Chet
May 2012
2
Different approaches to HE and Economic Development (Chicken problem)
•
Impact
◦ Land Grant Universities (understudied)
◦ Multiple variable impacts (CHEPS)
◦ Counterfactual comparisons (Siegfried, 2007) – University of Beau, Cameroon
(Fongwa)
•
Rate of Return
◦ Psacharopoulos (1986) – social returns to HE 10.8%, primary 19%. Private return
to HE 19%, primary 27%, but (2006) trend was reversing HE increasing by 1.7
percentage points, primary education decreasing by 2 percentage points.
•
Contribution to GDP
◦ Bloom (2006) In Sub Sahara Africa the addition of 1 year of tertiary education,
GDP increased by 0.25 % points and 0.40% in terms of productivity. African
Development Bank reported even greater gains.
3
•
Connectivity contexts
◦ University–industry interactions
◦ Innovation hubs – California, Boston, Cambridge, Finland Market – State
steering? (Castells & Himanen)
◦ Regional development – stimulus to a variety of regional industries, education,
local government and promoting regional urban, equity (OECD, Goddard)
•
Knowledge
◦ Basic- applied – strategic – innovation
◦ Modes/types of knowledge (Mode 1 & 2)
•
Causality
◦ what is the ‘direction’ between HE and Growth?
•
Incontrovertible that in the “knowledge economy” the “knowledge institution” is
being regarded as a “development driver” – empirically and ideologically
4
GDP per capita (current US$)
Predicted GDP per capita (current US$)
United States
Economic development
Australia
Japan
UK
High
Germany
Italy
Korea
Mexico
Brazil
Low
Argentina
South Africa
Tunisia
China
Egypt
India
Low
(R = 0.714, P = 0.218)
(R = 0.961, P = 0.002)*
High
Influence of Scientific Research
Data source: Thomson Reuters InCitesTM (21 September 2010); The World Bank Group (2010)
5
Gross tertiary
education
enrolment rate
(2008)
Quality of
education system
ranking
(2009-2010)
Overall global
competitive
ranking
(2010-2011)
Ghana
6
71
114
Kenya
4
32
106
2
81
131
Tanzania
2
99
113
Uganda
4
72
118
20
48
76
26
50
55
17 (8.5)
130
54
94
6
7
98
57
22
82
26
4
Country
Mozambique
Botswana
Mauritius
South Africa
Finland
South Korea
United States
Stage of
development
(2009-2010)
Stage 1:
Factor-driven
Transition from
1 to 2
Stage 2:
Efficiency-driven
Stage 3:
Innovation-driven
A substantial body of academic and technical literature provides evidence of the
relationship between informationalism, productivity and competitiveness for
countries, regions and business firms. But, this relationship only operates under three
conditions: information connectedness, organizational change in the form of
networking; and enhancement of the quality of human labour, itself dependent on
education and quality of life. (Castells and Cloete, 2011)
The structural basis for the growing inequality, in spite of high GDP growth rates in
many parts of the world, is the growth of a highly dynamic, knowledge-producing,
technologically advanced sector that is connected to other similar sectors in a global
network, but it excludes a significant segment of the economy and of the society in its
own country. The lack of human development prevents what Manuel Castells calls the
‘virtuous cycle’, which constrains the dynamic economy. (Castells and Cloete, 2011)
Connecting growth to human development – trickle down doesn’t work
Key connectors are education (Higher Education) and ICT
7
GDP per capita
(PPP, $US) 2007
GDP ranking
HDI Ranking
(2007)
GDP ranking per
capita minus HDI
ranking
Botswana
13 604
60
125
-65
Mauritius
11 296
68
81
-13
9 757
78
129
-51
Chile
13 880
59
44
+15
Costa Rica
10 842
73
54
+19
Ghana
1 334
153
152
1
Kenya
1 542
149
147
2
802
169
172
-3
Uganda
1 059
163
157
6
Tanzania
1 208
157
151
6
Finland
34 256
23
12
11
South Korea
24 801
35
26
9
USA
45 592
9
13
-4
Country
South Africa
Taiwan (China)
Mozambique
• To use a set of analytical concepts to try and better understand the
complex interactions between national economic/education policies and
higher education system development
• To learn from some OECD countries who had been successful in linking
HE and economic growth
• To use 8 African countries as contexts for the study
• To develop an empirical methodology to operationalise the concepts
• Do not assert that the primary/only role for higher education is
development
9
HERANA
Higher Education Research & Advocacy Network in Africa
RESEARCH
ADVOCACY
Higher Education and Development
Investigating the complex relationships
between higher education and economic
development, and student democratic
attitudes in Africa
The HERANA Gateway
An internet portal to research on higher
education in Africa
The Research-Policy Nexus
Investigating the relationship between
research evidence and policy-making in
selected public policy sectors in South
Africa
University World News (Africa)
Current news and in-depth investigations
into higher education in Africa
Nordic Masters in Africa (NOMA)
Collaborative research training by the
Universities of Oslo, Makerere, Western
Cape, and CHET
FUNDERS
Carnegie, Ford, Rockefeller, Kresge, DFID, Norad
10
• Three successful (OECD) systems investigated:
◦ Finland (Europe), South Korea (Asia), North Carolina (US)
• Africa
◦ Botswana – University of Botswana
◦ Ghana – University of Ghana
◦ Kenya – University of Nairobi
◦ Mauritius – University of Mauritius
◦ Mozambique – Eduardo Mondlane
◦ South Africa – Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
◦ Tanzania – University of Dar es Salaam
◦ Uganda – Makerere University
11
Higher Education Studies – Peter Maassen and Nico Cloete
Development Economist – Pundy Pillay (UWC)
Sociology of Knowledge – Jo Muller (UCT), Johann Mouton (US)
Data analysis - Ian Bunting (DoE), Charles Sheppard (NMMU)
Researchers – Tracey Bailey (CHET), Gerald Ouma (Kenya & UWC), Rumolo
Pinhiero (Oslo), Patricia Langa (Mozambique & UCT), Samuel Fongwa
(Cameroon, UWC)
External Commentators
• Manuel Castells (USC, Open University, Barcelona)
• John Douglas (CHES, Berkeley)
Ghana contributors
• Prof Ben Ahunu (Provost College of Agriculture)
• Mr Alfred Quartey (Director Planning)
• Dr Joseph Budu (Registrar)
• Dr Prof Esi Suthterland-Addey (Institute of African Studies)
12
Finland, South Korea, North Carolina (USA)
• As part of reorganising their ‘mode of production’, they developed a
(pact) around a knowledge economy model (high skills training,
research and innovation)
• Close links between economic and education planning
• High participation rates with differentiation
• Strong ‘state’ steering (different methods)
• Higher education linked to regional development
• Responsive to the labour market
• Strong coordination and networks
Pundy Pillay (2010): Linking higher education to economic development:
Implications for Africa from three successful systems. (CHET)
13
Higher education’s role in / contribution to development is influenced by
three inter-related factors:
• The nature of the pact between the university leadership, political
authorities, and society at large
• The nature, size and continuity of the academic core
• The connectedness and coordination of national and institutional
knowledge policies to the academic core and to development
projects is crucial
14
15
A ‘pact’ is defined as a fairly long-term cultural, socio-economic and
political understanding and commitment between universities, university
leadership, political authorities and society at large of the identity or vision
of universities, what is expected of universities, and what the rules and
values of the universities are.
Pacts are not only between society and higher education, but also important
within the institution.
16
Government
Government departments: Education; Science and Technology;
Treasury; Industrial Development; Research Councils
Notions and policies
Coordination mechanisms
External
Groupings
Students
Business
Community
Funders Govt
Pact
Academic Core
Connectedness
University
Leadership/
planning
Faculties
Academics
17
1. Narrative, intent and structures for the Role of HE in development
2. Visions and plans, i.e. Development Visions (2025-2035)
3. Policies – development, science and technology, higher education
4. Methods and structures for co-ordination
18
Indicators
3 Strong
2 Weak
1. The concept of a knowledge
economy features in the national
development plan
Appears in a number of
policies
Only mentioned
occasionally
2. A role for higher education in
development in national policies
and plans
Prevalent
Weak
Clearly mentioned in
development policies
Only mentioned in higher
education policy / plan
3. Concept of KE features in
institutional polices and plans
Systematic Policy
Framework
Sporadic
Formal structures
1 Absent
Not stated directly
Hardly mentioned
Clusters / forums
Headed by senior minister
4. Link between universities and
national authorities
Some formal structures
but no meaningful coordination
Political rather than
professional networks
5. Co-ordination and consensus
building of government agencies
involved in higher education
Intermittent interaction
with ineffective forums
Higher education issues
limited mainly to one
ministry or directorate
Key:
Mauritius
Ghana
19
Max. score
Botswana
Ghana
Kenya
Mauritius
Moz.
South
Africa
Tanzania
Uganda
NATIONAL LEVEL
9
3
3
6
7
4
6
4
3
Economic
development and
higher education
planning are linked
3
1
1
2
3
1
2
1
1
Coordination and
consensus building
of government
agencies involved in
higher education
3
1
1
2
2
1
2
1
1
Link between
universities and
national authorities
3
1
1
2
2
2
2
2
1
INDICATORS
20
Knowledge
Connectedness
University not part of
national development
model/strategy
University part of
national development
model/strategy
No or marginal role
for new knowledge
in development model
Luxury
Instrument
Central role
for new knowledge in
development model
Self-governance
Engine
21
1. Higher education is an ancillary: Assumes that there is no need for an
(active or direct) role for the university in national development.
2. Higher education as self-governing institutions: University is important
in national development, but there is no need for a direct role in national
development – academics must decide who is trained and with what
skills.
3. Higher education as instrument for development agendas: University
important for national development by providing expertise to reduce
poverty, improve agriculture and assist business, particularly SMEs.
4. Higher education is the engine for development: The university is a
core institution in national development; it can provide an adequate
foundation for the complexities of the emerging knowledge economy
in terms of relevant skills, competencies, research and innovation.
22
University not part of
development strategy
Ancillary
Self-governing
Central role for
new knowledge
in development
strategy
No or marginal role
for new knowledge
in development
strategy
Instrument
Engine
University part of
development strategy
23
ANCILLARY
SELF-GOVERNING
INSTRUMENT
ENGINE
COUNTRY
Gov
Uni
Gov
Uni
Gov
Uni
Gov
Uni
Botswana
●
●






Ghana




●
●

●
Kenya
●
●






Mauritius
●
●






Mozambique
●
●





●
South Africa
●







Tanzania


●




●
Uganda
●
●




●

 = Strong  = Present
● = Absent
24
1. At both national and Intuitional levels only sporadic mention of
knowledge economy
2. No broad agreement (pact) about a development model
3. No general agreement that, and by implication higher education, is key to
development (as is case in across the continent, HE is mainly for mobility
and a job
4. Regarding notions of the role of university in development, at national
level considerable ambiguity, at institutional, strong leaning towards self
governance (traditional teaching, research ‘outreach’ model)
5. Surprisingly low support (mention) for knowledge economy (engine of
development)
25
26
• Burton Clarke refers to the ‘academic heartland’ and a ‘stronger
steering core’
• The universities in the HERANA sample are public and ‘flagship’
universities which claim in mission statements that they:
◦ have high academic ratings,
◦ are centres of academic excellence engaged in high quality
research and teaching
◦ and contribute to development
• These are the key “knowledge institutions” in these countries
• Assumption: For a university to contribute to development it needs
a strong academic core
27
1. Increased enrolments in science, engineering and technology (SET) –
AU regards SET as a development driver
2. Increased postgraduate (PG) enrolments – knowledge economy requires
increasing numbers of workers with PG qualifications
3. Favourable academic staff to student ratio – workload should allow for
research and PhD supervision
4. High proportion of academic staff with PhDs – high correlation (0.82 in
South Africa) between doctorates and research output
5. Adequate research funding per academic – and from multiple sources
28
1. High graduation rates in SET fields – not only must enrolments increase,
but also graduate output
2. Increased knowledge production (doctoral graduates) – for reproduction
of academic core, to produce academics for other universities and for
demand in other fields
3. Increased knowledge production – research publications in ISI peerreviewed journals
29
3.00
Cape Town
2.50
2.00
1.50
Mean
1.00
0.50
0.00
Mauritius
-0.50
Ghana
-1.00
Dar es Salaam
-1.50
-2.00
INPUT INDICATORS
OUTPUT INDICATORS
2007
only
Averages for 2005 to 2007
2007 research
funding
Research income
per permanent
% academics
academic
with doctorates
ppp$
Averages for 2005 to 2007
SET
graduation
rate
Doctoral
graduates as %
Research
of permanent publications per
academic
academic
% SET majors
% Masters +
doctorates
Staff-student
ratio
University of Cape Town
41%
19%
13
58%
47 700
21%
15.00
0.95
Dar es Salaam University
40%
9%
14
50%
6 400
19%
2.18%
0.08
University of Ghana
19%
7%
22
47%
3 400
16%
0.17%
0.11
University of Mauritius
48%
13%
17
45%
3 000
26%
2.80%
0.13
30
Indicator 4: Qualification level of permanent academic staff members
UDSM, Highest qualification level of permanent
Makerere, Highest qualification level of
academic staff members (2007)
permanent academic staff members (2007)
17%
25%
31%
Doctorate
50%
Doctorate
Masters
Masters
Other
Other
25%
52%
Ghana, Highest qualification level of permanent
UCT, Highest qualification level of permanent
academic staff members (2007)
academic staff members (2007)
11%
12%
47%
Doctorate
Masters
42%
Other
Doctorate
30%
Masters
58%
Other
Indicator 5: Research Funding
Research funding resources (in US$) available in 2007 to the
academic staff members of each university.
Research income in 2007 per permanent academic staff member
35
29.7
30
25
20
15
10
5
0
US$ thousands
3.3
3.1
UDSM
Makerere
Ghana
UCT
3.3
3.1
1.4
29.7
1.4
• None of the universities (except Cape Town) seem to have moved from
their traditional undergraduate teaching role
• Considerable diversity amongst input indicators, with postgraduate
enrolments and inadequate research funds the weakest
• The strongest input indicators are manageable student-staff ratios
(Except Ghana) and staff with doctorates
• On the output side, SET graduation rates are positive, but all institutions
(except Cape Town) have low knowledge production
• From the weak knowledge production output indicators it seems the
academic cores are not strong enough to make a sustainable contribution
to development
33
• Despite dramatic increases in masters enrolments and graduations, PhD
enrolment is growing very slowly (Nairobi – masters grew 3900 to 6100;
doctorates decreased 190-62)
• Some institutions like Makerere have doubled PhD graduates and research
output, but from a low base
• Incentive structure (double and triple teaching, consultancies) may not
reward knowledge production
• Urgent need to improve data definition, systematic institution-wide
capturing and processing, and strengthen evidence-based strategic
planning and leadership
34
35
‘Connectedness’ operationalised along two dimensions:
1. ‘Articulation’:
◦ Extent to which aims and objectives articulate with national
development priorities and the university’s strategic objectives
◦ Linkages with government and external stakeholders
◦ Number of funding sources and financial sustainability
◦ Link to implementation agency
2. ‘Strengthening the academic core’ – development activities:
◦ Feed into teaching, curriculum development and the formal
training of students
◦ Generate new knowledge
◦ Result in academic publications
◦ Link to international academic networks
36
Direct articulation
12
11
SME Gatsby Clubs 1, 10
Dar es Salaam
Auto Components 5, 11
Nelson Mandela Metropolitan
10
Medical Research 5, 9
Ghana
9
7
Weakening
academic
core
Earth System
Science 5, 8
Nairobi
8
Business Clinic 0, 8
Botswana
Energy, Environment, Climate
Change Research 5, 7
Eduardo Mondlane
6
0
1
2
Poverty Alleviation
Strategies 2, 5
Mauritius
3 Community-based 4
Edn & Service 3, 6
5
Makerere
5
Strengthening
academic core
6
4
3
2
1
0
Indirect articulation
37
• Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research
• West African Centre for International Parasite Control (WACIPAC)
•
Gates Institute Partnership Projects for Population, Family and
Reproductive Health, School of Public Health
•
West Africa Centre for Crop Improvement (WACCI), Faculty of Agriculture
•
Enhancing child nutrition through animal source food management Food
Science
•
Institute of Statistical Social & Economic Research (ISSER)
38
Six selected development projects/activities:
Direct articulation
12
11
10
WACCI 3, 8
9
NMIMR 5, 9
8
WACIPAC 5, 8
ISSER 5, 9
ENAM 5, 8
7
Weakening
academic core
GIP 5, 6
6
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
Strengthening
academic core
5
4
3
2
1
0
Indirect articulation
39
• In none of the countries is there a coordinated effort between
government, external stakeholders and the university to systematically
strengthen the contribution the university can make to development.
• At each of the universities there are exemplary development projects that
connect strongly to external stakeholders and strengthen the academic
core – the challenge is to increase the number and scale of these projects.
40
41
• University leadership seminars are bound to continue to disappoint as
long as there is not more agreement about the role of higher education in
development, and relevant government officials and key members of
higher education governance structures are not part of the discussion and
capacity building
• It is important to clarify the roles and functions of higher education
commissions/councils, and to consider how they can play a role in
promoting greater agreement (pact formation) and coordination
42
• A focus should be to strengthen the academic cores of the ‘flagship’
universities
• Key areas to improve are:
◦ masters throughput to PhDs
◦ doctoral enrolments and graduation, with scholarships and post docs
◦ research funding and the conditionality's around research funding
• Examine incentives and address perverse incentives
• Consider an Africa Research Fund with some of the features of the
European Research Fund
• Funders and governments must build conditions into consultancies
that strengthen rather than weaken the academic core
43
• There is a clearly identified need to improve and strengthen the definition
of performance indicators, as well as the systematic, institution-wide
capturing and processing (institutionalisation) of key indicators
• Capacity needs to be built about the analysis of data at planning,
management and leadership levels, and linking these analyses to
planned reforms – at institutional and national levels
• Revitalising African higher education is, amongst other things, going to
require more comparative, evidence-based approaches than declarative
missions and intentions
44
Books and reports
1.
Linking Higher Education and Economic Development: Implications for Africa
from three successful systems (Pillay)
2. Universities and Economic Development in Africa: Pact, academic core and
coordination (Cloete, Bailey, Maassen)
3. Universities and Economic Development in Africa: Key findings
(Cloete, Bailey, Bunting & Maassen)
4. Country and University Case Studies: Botswana (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
5. Country and University Case Studies: Ghana (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
6. Country and University Case Studies: Kenya (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
7. Country and University Case Studies: Mauritius (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
8. Country and University Case Studies: Mozambique (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
9. Country and University Case Studies: South Africa (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
10. Country and University Case Studies: Tanzania (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
11. Country and University Case Studies: Uganda (Bailey, Cloete, Pillay)
> There is a clearly identified need to improve and
strengthen the definition of performance indicators,
as well as the systematic, institution wide capturing
and processing (institutionalisation) of key indicators
> Capacity needs to be built about the analysis of data
at both planning, management and leadership levels,
and linking these analyses to planned reforms – at
institutional and national levels
> Revitalising African higher education is amongst
other things going to require more comparative,
evidence based approaches than declarative missions
and intentions
> Important role of National Commissions
> Role of Incentives in Knowledge Production
46

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