What exactly is naturalism?

Choning zangmo
Lila Dhar Bastola
Jamyang Dorji
Thinley Penjor &
Karma Jamtsho
Naturalism commonly refers to the philosophical belief that only natural laws
and forces operate in the world and that nothing exists beyond the natural world.
Natural laws are the rules that govern the structure and behavior of the natural
The goal of science is to discover and publish these laws. Philosopher Paul Kurtz
argues that nature is best accounted for by reference to material principles.
These principles include mass, energy, and other physical and chemical properties
accepted by the scientific community. Further, this sense of naturalism holds that
Spirits, Deities, and Ghosts are not real and that there is no "purpose" in nature. This
sense of naturalism is usually referred to as metaphysical naturalism or philosophical
 Naturalism as a philosophy of education was developed in the 18th century.
It is based on the assumption that nature represents the wholeness of reality.
Nature, itself, is a total system that contains and explains all existence
including human beings and human nature. According to naturalists the
material and the physical world is governed by certain laws, and man, who
is the creator of the material world, must submit to it. It denies the existence
of anything beyond nature, behind nature and other than nature such as
 The great names associated with naturalism are many but the important
ones are those of Jean Jacques Rousseau, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi,
Herbert Spencer and Rabindranath Tagore.
Types of naturalism
Methodological naturalism can mean simply that science is to be
done without reference to supernatural causes. It can also be a
methodological assumption in the philosophy of religion that observable
events are fully explainable by natural causes without reference to the
Metaphysical naturalism means that the cosmos consists only of
objects studied by the natural sciences, and does not include any
immaterial or intentional realities and is the basis for Methodological
Naturalism is a concept that firmly believes that
ultimate reality lies in the nature of the matter.
Matter is considered to be supreme and mind is
the functioning of the brain that is made up of
matter. The whole universe is governed by laws
of nature and they are changeable. Its through our
sense that we are able to get the real knowledge.
The senses works like real gateways of
knowledge and exploration is the method that
helps in studying nature.
It is an outgrowth realism.
Comparison between naturalism and idealism
Nature alone is entire Reality, it is
Mind and thought are real.
The outlook of naturalist is
The outlook of a idealist is
They do not believe in existence
of God.
Believe in the existence of God.
Universe is natural create.
Universe has been created by
They do not believe in value, soul, Eternal spiritual values never
God, religion and divine spirit.
change. Truth, goodness and
beauty are eternal values.
NdNaturalism and education education
 This inter-dependence can be better understood by analyzing the
implications of philosophical principles in the field of education and
the role of teacher which is also philosopher.
 . In the naturalistic system of education there is no place for
classrooms, text-books, timetables, curriculum, formal lessons or
 Naturalism believes that formal education is the invention of society
which is artificial.
 Naturalism also believes in the principle of individual differences
which means that every child has a unique capacity to acquire
knowledge and also the pace of learning is unique.
The school to the naturalist is in no way different from the home
teacher is the observer and facilitator of the child's development.
believes that human beings have their own time-table for learning.
teacher kindles independent thinking, imagination and judgment.
should be patient, permissive and non-intrusive rather forcing or
hurrying children to learn.
• should give emphasis on activity, exploration,
learning by doing rather than lecturing, reciting and
massing information.
Naturalism in Bhutanese contextz
 Geography Chemistry-chemical reactions
 Biology-fertilisation,puberty, pollination,
growth, germination, cells,
 Science- H2O cycle, food chain in the
 Mathematics History English-
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