Chapter Notes - schallesbiology

Classification: Chapter 17
6 Kingdoms
Dissection notes
References: Holt Biology & sources
as noted by page.
• Taxonomy is the science of describing,
naming, and classifying organisms.
• The branch of biology that names & groups
organisms -according to their
characteristics & evolutionary history.
• A Universal System was designed to Eliminate
the use of Common Names and Confusion in the
Scientific World.
Use of Common Names
COMMON NAMES, such as “robin” or “fir tree”,
for organisms created some problems
common names varied from one locale to next
& did not describe species accurately.
Use of long Latin names
Used by scientists before 1700’s,- did not show
relationships between species & were
inconvenient, hard to understand.
Describe a problem with each of
these common names :
-Starfish -Seahorse -Jelly fish
-Peanut -Catfish
-Tiger shark
How are their names misleading?
Discuss problems when 1 organism has 2
common names:
Example- firefly & lightening bug
Carl Linnaeus (1707-1778)
“Father of Modern
• He used morphology
(which is the organism’s
structure & form)
• Grouped organisms
into hierarchical categories
Carl Linnaeus
• Formed “Taxa” (groups of organisms)
• (Used Latin for the Names because it was the
language of educated people)
• Morphology -the STRUCTURAL
• Series of hierarchical categories used to
show relationships
B. Modern classification system is
based on morphological similarities.
• Hierarchy of eight groups (Taxa)
– Domains- include all six kingdoms
– Kingdom – a taxon of similar phyla or divisions
– Phylum – (phyla-plural)- taxon of similar classes
– Class – taxon of similar orders
– Order – taxon of similar families
– Family – group of similar genera
– Genus – group of similar species
– species – most exclusive, specific group. Members of this grouping
can mate, produce viable offspring
– (varieties) – same species but with slight differences
– (subspecies) – same species, different location
8 Modern Levels of Classification
the most general to the most specific)
• Domain
• Kingdom
• Phylum
• Class
• Order
• Family
• Genus
• Species
Species- is the smallest, most specific group- contains only
1 kind of organism.
Pneumonic Devices
pick one to help you remember the taxa
• Keep Penguins Cool Or Find Good
• Kennywood Park Can Open For Good
• King Phillip Comes Over For Good Spaghetti
Binomial Nomenclature
Two Name Naming
• Uses the last 2 categories (the most specific)
to name things. uses the Genus & Species
for the 2 parts of the name
• Always Capitalize the Genus but Not the
Species Identifier.
• Both are either underlined or italicized.
Using Binomial Nomenclature
• Acer rubrum - RED MAPLE TREE
• Acer is the Latin name for Maple (genus)
• rubrum is the Latin word for Red(species)
• Can be Abreviated: A.rubrum.
• Homo sapiens - HUMANS
• Homo -large brain & upright posture.
sapiens for our intelligence & ability
to speak. Abbreviated H. sapiens
Additional Categories
• Zoologists
– use term “SUBSPECIES” for variations that may
occur in species from different geographical locationsie, timber wolf and the northern timber wolf- ex Canis
Lupus ssp occidentalis
• Botanists
– May use the term “division” instead of phylum
– sometimes split species into Subsets known as
VARIETIES. Example: peaches & nectarines are
varieties of Prunus persica var.
Additional Categories
• Microbiologists- Bacteria are also broken
into subsets called STRAINS. Example:
Escherichia Coli – some strains are harmless, even
helpful;- live in our intestines, but strain E. coli
157 is responsible for food poisoning deaths.
According to the CDC there are an estimated
73,000 cases of E. Coli infection every year in
the United States. The typical symptoms are
bloody diarrhea and (if severe) kidney failure.
These symptoms most commonly appear
when a person has eaten undercooked or
contaminated ground beef.
• organizes the diversity of living organisms in
the context of evolution.
• are based on several types of evidence:
1. Fossil Record
2. Morphology
3. Embryology
4. Chromosomes & Macromolecules
Phylogenetic Trees
• A family tree that shows evolutionary
relationships thought to exist among
• Is a hypothesis about the relationships.
• Is subject to change - as more evidence
is learned.
Which organisms are mostly closely related?
Which ones are most distantly related?
Animal kingdom phylogenetic tree
Taxonomic Groups
3 domains, 6 kingdoms
1. Domain Archaea
– aligns with Kingdom Archaebacteria, are singlecelled prokaryotic cells that have distinctive cell walls
& are “ancient bacteria”
2. Domain Bacteria
– aligns with Kingdom Eubacteria, are single-celled
prokaryotic cells that are “true bacteria”.
3. Domain Eukarya
– Domain Eukarya includes the kingdoms Protista,
Fungi, Plantae, & Animalia.
– All members of this domain have eukaryotic cells.
A closer look at each
of the 6 kingdoms:
Domain: Archaea, kingdom Archaea
Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria
• Organisms in the Kingdoms Eubacteria &
Archaea are very different from each other,
both genetically & biochemically!
• Archaea have been found in temperatures above
the boiling point and in cold that would freeze
your blood.
• Eubacteria are the “regular” bacteria.
1. Archaea
• “archae”- from the Greek for "ANCIENT".Scientists think these
are similar to Earth’s First Organisms
• “Extremophiles” – Many types of Archaeans live
Some types are
• Methanogens
• Themoacidophiles
• Extreme Halophiles
• Produce Methane
Gas, a byproduct of
metabolism in conditions of very low oxygen
• Includes Chemosynthetic Bacteria.
• Lives in the Intestines of Mammals.
• Methanobrevibacter smithii is the prominent
methanogen in the human gut, where it helps
digest polysaccharides (sugars).
- living in Sulfurous Hot Springs & Volcanic Vents
They “love”“acid” & “heat”
Extreme Halophiles
Live in Very Salty Places
(like the great Salt lake & the Dead Sea)
(Halite is the mineral name for NaCl)
Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria
2. “true” or
• The first thing you probably think of when you
say this word is “disease”- something like
strep. throat or maybe an infection in a cut.
• Most of the bacteria that are disease causing
are Eubacteria.
• NOTE: Only about 1% of bacteria are
disease causing.
Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria
• Many bacteria are very helpful organisms.
• Actinomycetes, produce antibiotics such as streptomycin
and nocardicin;
• others live symbiotically in the guts of animals (including
humans) or elsewhere in their bodies, or on the roots of
certain plants, converting nitrogen into a usable form.
• Bacteria put the tang in yogurt and the sour in sourdough
• help to break down dead organic matter; & make up the
base of the food web in many environments.
Domain: Bacteria, Kingdom Eubacteria
“True” Bacteria:
So remember- Most bacteria are beneficial
• Benign (benign = good, friendly, kind)
• Pathogens (means disease causing -only a few are “bad guys”)
• Bacteria occur in 3 basic shapes: cocci, bacilli & spiral. Many are
named by their shape.
Examples of common bacteria
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Protista
3. Protists
• Made of a variety of organisms that don’t “fit”
anywhere else. (Some are not very much like the
others in this group.)
• EUKARYOTIC (has a true nucleus)
• 50,000 species- many unicellular, some are like
fungi, some like plants or animals.
• Includes protozoans, unicellular algae, slime
molds & water molds
Examples of Protists includes slime molds
& protozoans like Euglena, Paramecium,
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Fungi
4. Fungi
• Can be Unicellular or multicellular
• HETEROTROPHIC (eats something else)
–NOT like plants (photosyntheic) (this is why they
were kicked out of the plant kingdom)
100,000 species of mushrooms,
puffballs, rusts, mildew & molds
Agaricus bisporus:
The Button Mushroom
Fungi Examples:
Stink horn
Candida albicanscan cause yeast
Infections- like this
mouth thrush
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Plantae
5. Plantae
• Multicellular &
• Photosynthetic (Autotrophs) (They
make their own food & are the chief food
producers of the world.)
• Found in all the types of environments:
aquatic algae, amphibian mosses, and
terrestrial ferns and seed-bearing plants.
• 350,000 species identified.
Phylogenetic tree of the plant kingdom
Domain: Eukarya, Kingdom Animalia
6. Animalia
• Eukaryotic,
• Multicellular
• Heterotrophic
• Most animals are symmetrical
• Movement at some time in their
life cycle.
Examples of animals
• Invertebrate:
Major Animal
– Porifera (sponges)
– Cnidaria (jellyfish ,coral)
– Ctenophora (comb jellies)
– Platyhelminthes (flatworms)
– Nematoda (roundworms)
– Annelida (segmented worms)- **add this phyla to
your sheet!!! (these are the earthworms & leeches)
– Rotifera (tiny aquatic free-living animals)
– Mollusca (snails, clams, squid, Octopi)
– Arthropoda
– Echinoderms –starfish, sea stars. Sea urchins
Last phylum is Chordata
• There are 2 invertebrate chordates:
• All the rest of animals in Chordata are
vertebrate classes
Vertebrate: classes
• Hagfishes (Myxini)
Lampreys (Cephalaspidomorphi)
Sharks (Chondrichthyes)
Ray-finned fishes
Lobe-Finned Fishes
(orders of mammals)
-Placental mammals
NEXT: Dissection Notes:
• Squid
• Earthworm
• Frog
• Which are
Animal Kingdom,
Invertebrate Phylum Annelida,
Class Oligochaeta
• Most familiar is the earthworm.
Structure and Movement
• Segmented body has over 100 nearlyidentical segments.
• Circular and longitudinal muscles line
the interior body wall.
Earthworms Feeding /Digestion
Ingest soil as they burrow through it.
• Soil is moved through these structures:
– mouth
– pharynx
– esophagus
– crop
– gizzard
– intestine
– anus
• Earthworms play an important role in the condition of soil.
Closed circulatory system.
• “Heart” is 5 aortic arches
• Also- have large dorsal blood vessel
• pump blood through the vessels of the body
Respiration and Excretion
• Oxygen & CO2 diffuse through moist skin,
• Cellular wastes and excess water are excreted
through nephridia.
Neural Control
• Consists of a chain of ganglia connected by a
ventral nerve cord.
• Earthworms are hermaphrodites, but
an individual worm cannot fertilize its own
• During mating, earthworms press their
ventral surfaces together.
• Held together by their setae and by a film of
mucus secreted by each worm’s clitellum.
• Fertilization occurs inside the tube, which
forms a protective case for the young
Earthworms reproducing
Earthworm diagrams
Earthworm links:
• http://animals.nationalgeographic.c
Squid dissection
Animal Kingdom, Vertebrate Class:
The name amphibian means "double life”
-adults live on land, but their soft eggs must be laid in the water.
Characteristics of Amphibians:
1. Metamorphosis (larval to adult)
2. Webbed Feet (if they have feet)-no claws
3. Thin, moist skin with no scales
4. Use gills, lungs & skin for respiration
- Aquatic young use gills & skin
- Terrestrial adults lose gills, use lungs & skin
Eggs- lack multi cellular membranes or
shells (laid in water or moist place)
Differences: amphibian eggs (left) & reptile
or bird eggs (right- in waterproof shell)
Differences/Similarities-Frogs & Toads
American Toad
• Very common in North
America & Pennsylvania
• Warty skin has a poisonous
milky fluid, =protection
from predators.
• Females lay their eggs in freshwater.
Hatching occurs 3 to 12 days after,
depending on the temperature of the water.
• The sexes can be distinguished in two ways
– Males dark colored throats, of black or brown, while
females have white throats and are lighter overall.
– female American toads are larger than males.
• Frog and toad species
– distinctive call to attract females.
– fertilized eggs hatch into tadpoles & metamorphose
into young frogs
– EXTERNAL FERTILIZATION occurs after amplexus
(pseudocopulation )
• Click here to see & hear common northern
USA frogs & toads
(remember not to go thru firefox)
Frog Dissection Sites:
a. Large intestine
b. Small intestine
1. Lung lobes
2. Heart
3. Liver lobes
4. Gall bladder
5. Stomach
6. Small intestine
7. Testis
8. Fat body
9. Urinary bladder
Frog nervous system
Frog Circulatory System

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