Unit 5: Africa & the Islamic World

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UNIT 5: AFRICA & THE ISLAMIC
WORLD AND THE GUNPOWDER
EMPIRES
A.D. 600- A.D. 1700
THE RISE OF ISLAM
• In the beginning, Arab people lived in an area
called the Arabian Peninsula.
ARABIAN PENINSULA
• Location is about where Africa, Asia, and Europe
meet.
These three continents influenced their culture to this
region.
CAN YOU DESCRIBE THE GEOGRAPHY?
What is the main
environment?
Was life easy or
difficult? Explain.
What type of
people lived on
the dessert?
What were they in
search of? Be
specific.
BEDOUINS
• Overtime, the nomadic people, called the
Bedouins, began to live in towns and cities.
• People who lived in towns engaged in local and
long distance…..? (previous and repeated
knowledge)
TRADE
TRADE
• Early 600s, trade had become important activity in
the Arabian Peninsula,
• Merchants from the Byzantine and Sassanid empires
to the north brought goods to Arabia.
• Spices, goods, and especially…..
New ideas
RELIGION OF THE AREA
• At the time Arab people believed in many gods.
• Religion pilgrims came to Mecca (important trading
city)to worship at an ancient shrine called the
Ka’ab.
• It contained more than 360 idols brought there by several
tribes.
WHO MIGHT THIS BE?
MUHAMMAD
1.
2.
3.
4.
570 A.D. birth of Muhammad
He was part of the Arab society
Born into a powerful family of Mecca
Orphaned at the age of six and received no
schooling
5. Became a successful merchant
6. Interested in religion due to his difficult life
7. At the age of 40, he took religion as his life’s
mission.
• One night the angel Gabriel told him to proclaim
the word of God to his people.
MUHAMMAD’S TEACHINGS
• One God- Allah
• His religion was called Islam
• His followers took the name of Muslims
• He converted family and friends
• He began to preach it public.
• Many people rejected his teachings, Why?
• for they feared Meccans would neglect traditional
Arab gods.
• Muhammad was forced to leave Mecca for Yathrib
(later called Medina) in 622.
• Muhammad became a political leader of Yathrib.
MECCA AND MEDINA
• Mecca and Medina fought several battles over the next
few years.
• Gradually Muhammad and his followers gained power.
• Mecca faded away as war raged on
• In 630 A.D., the leaders surrendered to Muhammad.
• So what would you do next if you were Muhammad
(think religion)?
He destroyed the Ka’ab
• The people of Mecca converted to Islam.
• Most of the Arabian Peninsula was under Islam influence
before Muhammad died in 632 A.D.
WHAT DOES THIS PICTURE REPRESENT
OTHER THAN ISLAM?
What Are The Five Pillars Of Islam?
(Click on question)
FIVE PILLARS OF ISLAM
• Why do you think the Muslims have fife duties that
need to be performed during their lifetime?
• The duties show a person’s accepting of the will of
God.
• Please see page 125 in your TEKS book and take
notes on the five pillars
WHAT IS THIS PICTURE?
QURAN
• The central ideas of the Muslim religion are founded
in the Quran, which Muslims believe to be the will of
ALLAH as revealed to Muhammad.
• It is written in Arabic – the official language of Islam
Watch video to compare the Bible to the Quran
How Does The Quran Compare To The Bible?
SAME GOD WORSHIPED AMONG THE
MAIN RELIGIONS
• Muslims believe that Allah is the same God that
Jews and Christians worship.
• To Muslims, the Quran perfects the earlier teachings
of God founded in the Jewish Torah and the
Christian Bible.
• Because their holy books were related to the
Quran, Jews and Christians enjoyed special status in
Muslim societies.
What Are The Main Beliefs Of Islam?
CLASS WORK.
•Work on the packet given.
•Highlight and take notes
while you read.
• Finish the first three sections of
Islam.
AFRICA WORLD
Overview
• In North and central Africa, people lived by
hunting and gathering. Later followers of
Islam built states that joined religious and
political power. In West Africa, empires built
on wealth from trade rose and fell. In East
Africa, a blend of African and Muslim
cultures created several cities that enjoyed
thriving trade. In Southern Africa, one
trading empire gave away to another.
AFRICA
NORTH AND CENTRAL AFRICAN
SOCIETIES
• Early societies in Africa were hunters and gathers.
• Some societies today are hunter and Gathers.
• Scholars study them to obtain clues about the lives
of people in the past.
• Efe, who live in the rainforest in Central Africa, are
one group of hunter and gathers that are studied.
• They live in groups of 50 or so people, all being related to
one another. Each family lives in its own shelter, made of
grass and brush. They keep few possessions so that they
can move often in the search for food. (click on Efe for article)
• Film on Efes… (click on the word film)
AFRICAN SOCIETY
• Societies are organized along family ties
• Societies trace their families in terms of lineages
– lineal is a direct path of descent from a common
ancestor.
• The lineage includes those born in the past and those yet to
be born. Lineage groups took the place of rulers. These
societies are called stateless societies because they do not
have central governments.
• Authority in these societies was spread among more
than one lineage to prevent any one family from
dominating.
• They used discussion to settle conflicts between groups
AFRICAN SOCIETY 2
• In the African society, children of similar ages form
into groups called age sets
• All members of the age set take part in
ceremonies. These signal the movement from one
stage of life to the next.
IMPACT OF ISLAM ON AFRICA
• Islam arrived in Africa in the late 600s
• By 670, Muslims ruled Egypt and most of North Africa.
• In Africa’s new states, the Muslims ruled Egypt and set up
theocracies (a form of government in which God or a deity is recognized as
the supreme civil ruler, the God's or deity's laws being interpreted by the
ecclesiastical authorities.)
• In the theocracy, the ruler served as both a political and
religious leader.
• The Islamic tradition of obeying the law helped
promote order and support the government.
• The common influence of Islamic law also forged bonds
between the different North African States.
BERBERS
• In the 11th century, a group called the Berbers
became strongly committed to spreading Islam.
• They were called the Almoravids.
• They conquered modern Morocco by 1062, the
empire of Ghana by 1076, and parts of Spain by
1086.
BERBERS 2
• The Almoravids Berbers were replaced by another
group of Berbers, the Almohads.
• They arose in the atlas Mountains of Morocco and
opposed the Almoravids. Why?
• They said the Almoravids no longer followed strict
Muslim teaching.
• Almohads, too, captured Morocco and then Spain.
• They extended their power as far east as the city
Tripoli and Tunis.
• Within a hundred years, this empire broke up into
smaller states.
QUESTION
• How did social groupings in north and central
African societies differ from that of American
society today?
Shout out thoughts and ideas
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING WORK
SHEETS
• North and Central African Societies
• West African Empires and Civilizations
(click)
• Eastern City States and Southern
Empires (click)
• Complete the “After You Read” work
on the packet given.
Highlight and take notes while you read.
Each section
THE MUSLIM WORLD EXPANDS
Overview
A group of Turks called the Ottomans set up
anew empire in what is now modern Turkey.
Father to the east, the Safavid Empire a rose
in modern Iran, where rulers embraced a
special type of Islam that made them
different from their neighbors. Meanwhile,
India saw the rise of yet another empire as
Muslims created a powerful state there.
THE OTTOMANS BUILD A VAST EMPIRE
THE OTTOMANS
• 1300, the world of the Eastern Mediterranean was
seeing changes.
• The Byzantine Empire was fading.
• The Seljuk Turk state had been destroyed by the
Mongols.
• Anatolia, the area of modern Turkey, was now
inhabited by groups of nomadic Turks.
• They saw themselves as ghazis, or warriors for Islam. They
formed military groups and raided the lands where nonMuslims lived.
OSMAN
OSMAN
• The most successful ghazi was Osman.
• Western Europeans took his name to be Othman and called
his followers Ottomans.
• Between 1300-1326, Osman built a strong but small
kingdoms in Anatolia.
• Leaders who came after Osman called themselves
sultans, or “ones with power.”
• They extended the kingdom by buying land, forming
alliances with other chieftains, and conquering everyone
they could.
• The military success of the Ottomans was aided by
gunpowder- especially as used in cannons.
OTTOMANS RULE
• The Ottomans ruled kindly through local officials
appointed by the sultan.
• Muslims had to serve in the army but paid no taxes.
Non-Muslims paid the tax but did not have to serve
in the army. Many joined Islam simply to avoid the
tax.
• Most people in their empire adjusted quickly to their easy of
rule.
TIMUR THE LAME
TIMUR THE LAME
• Timur the Lame or they called him Tamerlane, did
not adjust to the Ottoman rule.
• He arose in central Asia. He claimed to be the
descended from Genghis Khan. (claim may not be
true)
• He was a fierce fighter as the Mongol conqueror.
He conquered Russia and Persia, where he burned
the city of Baghdad to the ground.
• In 1402, he defeated the Ottomans in battle and
captured the Sultan, Timur died three years later on
his way to conquer China
WHAT DO YOU SEE?
MEHMET I AND II
• In Anatolia, the four sons of the last sultan fought for
control of the Empire.
• Mehmet I won control, and his son and the four
following sultan brought the Ottoman Empire to its
greatest power.
• One of them- Mehmet II- took power in 1451 and
captured Constantinople.
• At first, his ships were unable to sail near the city
because barriers blocked the way. So he had
soldiers drag the ships over hills so they can be
launched on another side of Constantinople.
MEHMET II
• After several weeks of fighting, the Ottoman force
was simply too strong for the tiny army left in the
city. In 1453, Constantinople finally fell to the
Ottomans, Mehmet made the city his capital, which
he renamed Istanbul.
• He famous and beautiful church of the Hagia
Sophia became a mosque. (click for pictures)
• The rebuilt city became home to people from all
over the Ottoman Empire.
HAGIA SOPHIA
SELIM THE GRIM
SELIM THE GRIM
• Other Emperors used conquest to make the empire
grow.
• Selim the Grim took Persia, Syria and Palestine.
• He then captured Arabia, took the Muslim holy city
of Medina and Mecca, and gained control of
Egypt.
SULEIMAN I
SULEIMAN I
• Selim’s son Suleiman I, brought the Ottoman Empire
to its greatest size and most impressive
achievements.
• He conquered parts of southeastern Europe by
1525.
• He won control of the entire eastern Mediterranean
Sea and took North Africa as far west as Tripoli.
• Although he was defeated in a battle for Vienna in
1529, his Ottoman Empire remade vast.
SULEIMAN’S RULE
• Suleiman ruled his empire with a highly structured
government. Serving the royal family and government
were thousands of slaves. Among them was an elite
group of soldiers called janissaries. They were Christians
taken as children and made slaves with personal loyalty
to the sultan. Other slaves were held important
government jobs. The empire allowed people to follow
their own religion. Jews and Christians were not
mistreated by the Ottomans. Suleiman revised the laws
of the empire which won him the name Suleiman the
Lawgiver.
• Film Review of Suleiman
AFTER SULEIMAN
• Suleiman left behind a vast empire that included
accomplished works of art. He used an excellent
architect to build many fine buildings in his capital.
• Many sultans ruled after Suleiman, but non were as
accomplished as he had been. And the Ottoman
Empire’s power slipped.
• Venice and the Ottoman Empire: Crash Course
World History #19
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING WORK
SHEETS
1. The Ottomans build a vast empire
2. The Safavid Empire
3. The Mughals Established an Empire in India
Complete the “After You Read” work on the packet
given.
Highlight and take notes while you read.
Each section

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