Linage: Common ancestors Stateless Societies: cultures based on ancestral linage instead of government Ghana: The first west African kingdom based on Gold/Salt trade Mali: West African kingdom based on Gold/Universities/Mansa Musa Sundiata:1st Great leader of Mali. Cruel and unpopular. Mansa Musa: Islamic Mali King. Hajj. Built Mosques/University at Timbuktu Ibn Battuta: African Marco Polo. 27 years of travel in the Muslim World Songhai: West African kingdom that took over Mali. Muslim rulers. Lacked modern weapons. Benin: African Culture on the Niger River. Bronze/Brass artifacts Swahili: Arabic Language diffused with Bantu language Great Zimbabwe: South East African Trade city. Gold/Trade hub. Chapter 15:1 Hunter-Gathering Societies Matrilineal vs. Patrilineal Most societies are patrilineal or traced ancestry through father Hunter-Gatherer = nomadic Most northern and central African societies were nomadic due to harsh climate (too dry or rainforest) Islamic influence Rise of Islam in Africa Mostly along northern and eastern coasts; introduced to Africa through trade and conquest Brought Islamic law and traditions to Africa as well as written language (Arabic) STATELESS SOCIETIES S.S. are based on families/clans They serve as the government Patrilineal: Father Matrilineal: Mother Age Set System Right of passage based on age!! MUSLIM STATES Maghri(e)b: Northern Africa/Mediterranean Islamic Law runs life/government 1. What sorts of food did the Efe hunt and gather in the Iturbi Forest? 2. What different purposes does the age-set system serve in African societies? 3. What role did Islam play in the political history of Northern Africa? 15:2 Ghana, Mali, and Songhai Gold/Salt Trade Trade for Gold and Salt along Niger River and trans-Saharan trade routes made all three kingdoms flourish Trade was single most important factor for success of all three kingdoms Islam brought to Africa along the trans-Saharan trade routes Islam was practiced by all major west African rulers Blended Islam with native African Religions Mansa Musa Led kingdom of Mali during Golden Age Went on famous pilgrimage to Mecca 1324 Control of Gold and Salt Trade (100,000 men) Built the city of Timbuktu – the most famous trade city of Mali/University “Muslim Marco Polo” Traveled the length of the Muslim World during 1500s, wrote accounts of each Muslim country he visited Most important primary source for historians on Muslim countries during the late Middle Ages Located south of Ghana, Mali, and Songhai on West African coast Isolated due to location away from major river Known for distinctive African artwork free from foreign influence 1. How did Ghana’s gold-salt trade work? 1. How did Sunni Ali build an Empire? 1. What form of government was typical of Hausa city-states? Chapter 15:3 Indian Ocean Trade Network Stretched from Indonesia and China in the east to Africa in the west Kilwa, Mogadishu, and Mombassa most important trade cities in east Africa Traded ivory, gold, and slaves Islamic Influences Most city-states ruled by Muslims and followed Islamic Law Arabic language combined with Bantu to form Swahili Great Zimbabwe From 1200-1400, this city controlled inland Africa Many ruins are left from this site, including huge city structures and walls Considered to be African culture most free from outside influence Portuguese Arrived along African coast in the late 1400’s Built trade forts along African coast and captured many trade cities Brought European influence to Africa including Christianity Began European slave trade by exploiting existing slave trade 1. How did the Swahili Language develop? 1. How was Islam introduced to East Africa? 1. How did the people of Great Zimbabwe positively interact with their environment?